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săcer , să_cra, să_crum (ante-class. collat. form sacer, sacris, sacre; plur.:
I.sacres porci,Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 16; id. Rud. 4, 6, 4; Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 20; 4, 16; sing. acc.: sacrem porcum, Fest. s. h. v. p. 318 Müll.), adj. root sa-; Gr. σάος, σῶος, safe; whence Lat. sānus, dedicated or consecrated to a divinity, holy, sacred, = ἱερός (cf.: sanctus, augustus): Gallus Aelius ait, sacrum esse quocumque modo atque instituto civitatis consecratum sit, sive aedis, sive ara, sive signum, sive locus, sive pecunia, sive quid aliud quod dis dedicatum atque consecratum sit, Fest. s. v. sacer mons, p. 318 Müll.; cf.: “quicquid destinatum est diis, sacrum vocatur,Macr. S. 3, 7: “sacrae (res) sunt quae diis superis consecratae sunt: religiosae quae diis manibus relictae sunt,Gai. Inst. 2, 3.
I. In gen.
(α). Absol.: “quicquam (opp. profanum),Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 27; id. Trin. 2, 2, 8; cf.: “aedificiis omnibus, publicis privatis sacris profanis, sic pepercit, etc.,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 54, § 129; so, “locus sacer et profanus,id. Inv. 1, 26, 38; Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7; Quint. 5, 10, 38: “miscebis sacra profanis,Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 54; id. A. P. 397; Nep. Them. 6, 5; Sall. C. 11, 6: “villae signis et tabulis refertae partim publicis partim etiam sacris et religiosis,Cic. Leg. 3, 13, 31; so (with religiosus) Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 57, § 127; Suet. Tib. 61: “mores autem rapere properant quā sacrum quā puplicum,Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 37: “(legum) genera sunt tria, sacri, publici, privati juris,Quint. 2, 4, 33; cf. in the sup.: “deprecor hoc unum per jura sacerrima lecti,Ov. H. 9, 159: “aedes,Plaut. Am. 4, 1, 5; Cic. Fam. 13, 11, 1; Quint. 4, 2, 8; Ov. M. 14, 315: “lucus late sacer,Verg. A. 5, 761: “arvum Martis,Ov. M. 7, 101: “ara,Plaut. Aul. 4, 1, 20: “aurum,Liv. 5, 50; cf. “pecunia (opp. privata),Quint. 4, 2, 8: “arma,Liv. 24, 21: “tus,Ov. M. 14, 130: “sanguis (of the sacrificial victim),Cat. 68, 75: “ales (so called from its use in augury),Verg. A. 11, 721: “luces (with profestae),Hor. C. 4, 15, 25; cf. “dies (with religiosus),Suet. Tib. 61: “tempus,Hor. C. S. 4: “commissum,a crime against religion, Cic. Leg. 2, 9 et saep.— Poet.: vitis (as sacred to Bacchus), Enn. ap. Charis. p. 214 P. (Trag. v. 149 Vahl.); Hor. C. 1, 18, 1; so, “laurus,id. ib. 3, 4, 18; Verg. A. 7, 60: “robur,Ov. M. 8, 752: “aqua,Hor. C. 1, 1, 22: “fontes,Ov. M. 2, 464; Verg. E. 1, 53: “focus,Hor. Epod. 2, 43: “Tarentum,id. C. 1, 28, 29: “fines,Sil. 3, 501; cf. “montes (the Alps, because not to be ascended by men),id. 4, 70; “vates (because dedicated to Apollo),Hor. C. 4, 9, 28; Tib. 2, 5, 113; cf.: “sacer interpresque deorum Orpheus,Hor. A. P. 391; “and (for sanctus) of the divinity itself: Vesta,Prop. 3, 4 (4, 3), 11; so, “Cybebe,id. 3 (4), 22, 3 (but in Liv. 3, 19: ut sacrosancti habeantur, quibus ipsi dii neque sacri neque sancti sunt, so used only on account of the lusus verbb. with sacrosancti; “v. the context).—Sacer Mons,a hill about three miles from Rome, beyond the Anio, and on the right of the Via Nomentana, to which the Roman people retired during their controversy with the Senate, Liv. 2, 32; 3, 52; Cic. Rep. 2, 37, 63; id. Brut. 14, 54: “os sacrum, quod imum ventrem sustinet,Cael. Aur. Tard. 1, 4: Sacra Via, or (poet.) Sacer Clivus, a street in Rome leading from the Forum to the Capitol, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; id. Att. 4, 3, 3; Hor. S. 1, 9, 1; id. C. 4, 2, 35; Mart. 1, 70, 5; “v. also via, I. A. 2.: sacer morbus,the epilepsy, Cael. Aur. Tard. 1, 4: “sacer lapis,a stone landmark, a mere-stone, Liv. 41, 13: os sacrum, anatom. t. t., = Gr. ἱερὸν ὀστέον, the lowest bone of the spine, Cael. Aur. Tard. 1, 4, 24: “litterae sacrae (eccl. Lat.),the Scriptures, Vulg. 2 Tim. 3, 15.—For its combinations with ignis, via, etc., v. those words.—
(β). With gen. (class.): “ego te sacram coronam surripuisse scio Jovis,Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 38; so, “urna Veneris,id. Rud. 2, 5, 16 (for which: “urna Veneria,id. ib. 2, 5, 18): “Dianae celebris dies,Hor. C. 2, 12, 20: “sepulcrum Batti veteris,Cat. 7, 6; cf. Plin. 8, 21, 31, § 76.—As a predicate: terra, ut focus domiciliorum, sacra deorum omnium est (a transl. of the Platon. Γῆ ἱερὰ πάντων θεῶν), Cic. Leg. 2, 18, 45: “illa insula (sc. Delos) eorum deorum sacra putatur,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 48.—
(γ). With dat. (mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose; cf. “infra, II. A.): sacra Jovi quercus,Ov. M. 7, 623: “esculus Jovi sacra,Plin. 16, 4, 5, § 11: “Nymphis cervus,Ov. M. 10, 109: “Cereri Polyphoetes (as a priest),Verg. A. 6, 484: “pugionem templo Salutis detraxerat gestabatque velut magno operi sacrum,Tac. A. 15, 53: “cupressus Diti sacra,Plin. 16, 33, 60, § 139: “aesculus Jovi,id. 16, 4, 5, § 11.—As a predicate: “Jani mensis, Qui sacer est imis Manibus,Ov. F. 2, 52, quercus antiqua, quae erat Marti sacra, Suet. Vesp. 5 (al. sacrata).—
B. Transf., in gen., holy, sacred, awful, venerable (not till after the Aug. per., and very rare): “silentium,Hor. C. 2, 13, 29: “laedere amantes,Prop. 3, 16 (4, 15), 11: “lingua (Ciceronis),Mart. 5, 69, 7: Maro, id. 8. 56, 3: “quaedam patris memoria,Quint. 11, 1, 59: “O sacer et magnus vatum labor,Luc. 9, 983: “heu sacri vatum errores,Sil. 8, 100.—So used of the emperors; “disapproved of by Tiberius: (Tiberius) alium dicentem sacras ejus occupationes verba mutare et pro sacris laboriosas dicere coëgit,Suet. Tib. 27.—But soon after Tiberius in general use: “auris Caesaris,Mart. 7, 99, 4: “sacri lateris custos,id. 6, 76, 1: “apud aures sacras mentitus est,Amm. 28, 6, 26 (cf.: “se Imperatori mentitum,id. 28, 6, 26, § 21); and hence, for ecclesiastical: domus, comitatus, scrinia, largitiones, etc., in the law books et saep.
II. In partic., with a bad accessory signif., devoted to a divinity for destruction, forfeited; and absol., accursed, criminal, impious, wicked.
(α). With dat.: si quisquam aliuta faxit, ipsos Jovi sacer esto, Lex Numae ap. Fest. p. 6 Müll.; cf.: ut caput ejus Jovi sacrum esset, an ancient plebiscitum ap. Liv. 3, 55, 7: “non alienum videtur, de condicione eorum hominum referre, quos leges sacros esse certis diis jubent, quod, cum cetera sacra violari nefas sit, hominem sacrum jus fuerit occidi, etc.,Macr. S. 3, 7.—
(β). Absol.: homo sacer is est, quem populus judicavit ob maleficium; neque fas est eum immolari; sed qui occidit, parricidii non damnatur. Nam lege tribuniciā primā cavetur: si quis eum, qui eo plebei scito sacer sit, occiderit, parricida ne sit. Ex quo quivis homo malus atque improbus sacer appellari solet, Fest. s. v. sacer mons, p. 318 Müll.: PATRONVS SI CLIENTI FRAVDEM FECERIT SACER ESTO, LEX XII. Tab. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 6, 609; “in imitation: uter aedilis fuerit, etc. ... is intestabilis et sacer esto,Hor. S. 2, 3, 181: “eum, qui cuiquam nocuerit, sacrum sanciri,Liv. 3, 55.—
B. Transf., in gen., accursed, execrable, detestable, horrible, infamous, etc. (only poet. and in post-Aug. prose).
a. Of persons: “ego sum malus, Ego sum sacer, scelestus,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 6, 14; Afran. ap. Non. 397, 22 (with malus); Lucil. ib. 397, 27.—Sup., Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 67: “homo sacerrimus,id. Poen. prol. 90; id. Rud. 1, 2, 69; Turp. ap. Non. 397, 29 (with pessimus). —
b. Of things: sacerrimum domicilium, Turp. ap. Non. 397, 30: “di magni, horribilem et sacrum libellum,Cat. 14, 12: “hircus alarum,id. 71, 1: “auri fames,Verg. A. 3, 57 (for which: “aurum fame,Plin. 33, 1, 3, § 6: “venenum (Medeae),Val. Fl. 7, 165: “nox,id. 8, 25: “arma metu,id. 4, 185; cf. “pavor,id. 1, 798: “insania,Stat. Th. 10, 804: “morbus,” i. e. epilepsy, Cael. Aur. Tard. 1, 4.—With dat.: “ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi Sacer nepotibus cruor,Hor. Epod. 7, 20.— Comp. and adv. do not appear (as for the comp. v. Varr. L. L. 8, § 77 Müll.).—Hence, subst.: _crum , i, n., something consecrated; a holy or sacred thing, a sacred vessel or utensil; a sanctuary, a temple; a religious act, a sacrifice, etc.; in plur. in gen., sacred rites, religious worship, religion (both of the State and of single races and families; and even of individuals; v. infra, β; class.; most freq. in plur.).
A. Lit.
(β). Plur.: sacra deosque penates .. ex aedibus suis eripuisse dixit, sacred vessels or utensils, holy things, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 5, § 13; cf. Liv. 5, 40: “sacra omnia proferre, Auct. B. Alex. 32, 3: portabant canistris,Ov. M. 2, 713: “Troïa,Tib. 2, 5, 40: “velut qui Junonis sacra ferret,Hor. S. 1, 3, 11; cf. “of the same,Verg. A. 2, 293; 2, 717 Heyne; Ov. F. 1, 527; id. H. 7, 80; 7, 158: “cumque suis penetralia sacris,” i. e. the images of the gods, Penates, id. M. 1, 287: “jactata aequoribus sacra,Hor. C.4,4,54: “pueri Sacra canunt,sacred songs, Verg. A. 2, 239; cf. Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 19: “sacra ordine in mensā Penatium deorum Ponuntur,sacred gifts, offerings, Naev. B. Pun. 1, 11: “neve ulla vitiorum sacra sollemnia obeunto,Cic. Leg. 2, 8, 19: “sicut in sollemnibus sacris fieri consuevit,Sall. C. 22, 2: “qui (Mercurius) sacris anniversariis coleretur,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 39, § 84 (for which: “sacrificiis anniversariis colebatur,id. ib. 2, 4, 57, § “128: sacris e principum numero pontifices quinque praefecit,id. Rep. 2, 14, 26: “(Romulus) sacra diis aliis Albano ritu, Graeco Herculi facit,Liv. 1, 7; cf.: “sacra Jovi facturus erat,Ov. M. 3, 26: “sacra Jovi Stygio Perficere,Verg. A. 4, 638: “ipse (Numa) plurima sacra obibat,Liv. 1, 20: “densi circumstant sacra ministri,Ov. M. 2, 717: “arcana sacra,Hor. Epod. 5, 52; Ov. M. 10, 436: “fera,id. ib. 13, 454: “nefanda,id. ib. 10, 228: “mystica,id. H. 2, 42: “horrida,Sil. 3, 140: “veneranda,id. 7, 382: “casta,Stat. Achill. 1, 370.
a. Divine worship or religion in gen.: publica sacra, quae publico sumptu pro populo fiunt, quaeque pro montibus, pagis, curiis, sacellis: at privata, quae pro singulis hominibus, familiis, gentibus fiunt, Fest. pp. 244 and 245 Müll.; Liv. 5, 52: “quo foedere (Romulus) et Sabinos in civitatem ascivit, sacris communicatis,Cic. Rep. 2, 7, 13: “quod per populum errari fas non erat propter religionem sacrorum,id. Agr. 2, 7, 18; so, “religio sacrorum,id. Fl. 28, 69: “sacra Cereris conficere,id. Balb. 24, 55; so, “Cereris,Hor. S. 2, 8, 14 (cf. supra, α fin.): “Eleusina,Suet. Claud. 23: “Junonis,Hor. S. 1, 3, 11: “Orphica,rites, solemnity, festival, Cic. N. D. 3, 23, 58: “Bacchia,Ov. M. 3, 518: “trieterica Bacchi,id. ib. 6, 587: “Dianae,id. ib. 7, 94; “15, 489: Isidis,Suet. Oth. 12 et saep.—
b. The private religious rites of a gens, a family, etc. (observed by the Romans with the greatest care): “sacra privata perpetua manento,Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 47: “an gentilicia sacra ne in bello quidem intermitti, publica sacra et Romanos deos etiam in pace deseri placet?Liv. 5, 52: “ut ne morte patris familias sacrorum memoria occideret,Cic. Leg. 2, 19, 48: “docebant (antiqui) tribus modis sacris adstringi,id. ib. 2, 20, 49: “magnum est eadem habere monumenta majorum, eisdem uti sacris, sepulcra habere communia,id. Off. 1, 17, 55; cf.: “ut qui natus sit, ignoret, cujus sanguinis, quorum sacrorum sit,Liv. 4,2: “sacra interire illi (majores) noluerunt,Cic. Mur. 12, 27: “sacrorum alienatio,id. Or. 42, 144 (v. alienatio); cf. sing.: “sacrum familiare,Macr. S. 1, 16: “nuptialia,marriage solemnities, Quint. 1, 7, 28; “called also jugalia,Ov. M. 7, 700; cf. respecting the sacra privata of the Romans, Savigny, in his Zeitschr. 2, p. 397 sq.—
c. Poet., poems (as sacred to the Muses): “mihi jam puero caelestia sacra placebant, Inque suum furtim Musa trahebat opus,Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 19: “vatum,Pers. prol. 7: “Maronis,Mart. 7, 63, 5. —
2. Prov.
a. Inter sacrum saxumque stare, to stand between the victim and the knife, i. e. to be between the door and the wall, to be in great straits, Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 84; cf.: “inter sacrum et saxum positus,App. M. 11, p. 271 fin.
b. Hereditas sine sacris, i. e. a great profit without trouble, = a rose without thorns, meat without bone, etc. (because the keeping up of the sacra privata was attended with great expense), Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 8, and id. Trin. 2, 4, 83; cf. Fest. p. 290 Müll.—
B. Transf., in gen. (the figure being borrowed from secret religious rites), in plur.: sacra, secrets, mysteries (not till after the Aug. period, and very rare): “sacra tori coitusque novos referebam,Ov. M. 7, 709: “peregisse mihi videor sacra tradentium artes,Quint. 5, 14, 27 (cf.: “omnes fere, qui legem dicendi, quasi quaedam mysteria, tradiderunt,id. 5, 13, 60): “litterarum colere,id. 10, 1, 92: “studiorum profanare,Tac. Or. 11.
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