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sĕmĕl , adv. num. root sam-, one; Sanscr. sa-, sam-, with, together; Gr. ἅμα, ἅπαξ; cf.: sem-per, sim-ilis, sim-plex, sin-gulus, etc..
I. Lit., once, a single time: ter sub armis malim vitam cernere, Quam semel modo parere, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 6, § 81 Müll.; and ap. Non. 261, 9 (Trag. v. 298 Vahl.); so, “potin' ut semel modo huc respicias?Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 30: “satis sum semel deceptus,id. Capt. 3, 5, 99: “semel fugiendi si data est occasio, Satis est,id. ib. 1, 2, 8; so, “semel si,id. As. 1, 3, 66 (but cf.: si semel, infra, II. B. 2 fin.): “qui vel semel ita est usus oculis, ut vera cerneret, is, etc.,Cic. Div. 2, 52, 107: “ut attendant, semel bisne signum canat in castris,Liv. 27, 47, 3: “semel in mense sulcos sarrito,Cato, R. R. 43, 2: “semel die,Cels. 1, 3 fin.: “in diebus,Col. 12, 30, 1: “semel anno,Plin. 12, 14, 32, § 58: “in anno,id. 4, 12, 26, § 89: “quem (Crassum) semel ait in vitā risisse Lucilius,Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 92; so, “semel in vitā,Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 58: “semel adhuc,id. 2, 25, 22, § 90: “semel umquam,id. 2, 35, 35, § 100 et saep.: “M. Valerius Corvinus sellā curuli semel ac vicies sedit,id. 7, 48, 49, § 157; “for which also: vicies et semel,id. 2, 108, 102, § 243: sol omni terrarum ambitu non semel major, not greater by once, i. e. not as large again, not twice as large, Sen. Q. N. 6, 16: “haud semel sed centies,Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 148; cf. id. As. 2, 4, 15: “non semel, sed bis,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 77, § 179; Val. Max. 1, 8, 4: “non semel, sed saepe,Cic. Att. 1, 19, 7; id. Tusc. 5, 19, 56: “non semel sed saepius,id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113; Nep. Epam. 7, 2; Lact. 3, 17, 12; Aug. Ep. 43, 15; 102, 7: “non plus quam semel eloqui,Cic. Off. 3, 15, 61; Vell. 2, 40, 4; also without quam: plus semel, more than once, Varr. ap. Plin. 14, 14, 17, § 96: Janum Quirinum semel atque iterum clausum, once and again, i. e. twice, Suet. Aug. 22 (for which: “Janus bis clausus,Liv. 1, 19; Flor. 4, 12, 64; cf. also Plut. Num. 20); Suet. Aug. 27; but also in a more gen. sense: pecuniam semel atque iterum dare coacti sunt, time and again, i. e. repeatedly, Cic. Font. 12, 26 (8, 16): “hoc semel ille iterumque neglexit,id. Div. 1, 25, 54; cf.: “cum his Aeduos semel atque iterum armis contendisse,Caes. B.G. 1, 31; Liv. 27, 16 fin.; so too Suet. Claud. 46; “for which: semel iterumque,Petr. 34, 9; 115, 12: “Piso saepe dicebat, minus saepe Pomponius, raro Carbo, semel aut iterum Philippus,only once or twice, Cic. Brut. 90, 308; Sen. Contr. 1, 7, 12: “semel et saepius,Cic. Phil. 14, 8, 22; Varr. L. L. 10, § 33 Müll.; cf.: “an quod semel jus est, idem et saepius?Quint. 7, 8, 3.—Late Lat.: “semel et bis,repeatedly, Vulg. Phil. 4, 16; Greg. M. Ep. 5, 18 fin.
II. Transf.
A. Pregn., like the Gr. ἅπαξ, of that which occurs no more than once, but once, but a single time, once for all: “cum facile orari, Caesar, tum semel exorari soles,Cic. Deiot. 3, 9: “quibus semel ignotum a te esse oportet,id. ib. 14, 39: “hostis est datus, cum quo dimicantes aut vitam semel aut ignominiam finirent,Liv. 25, 6: “totas semel absorbere placentas,to swallow entire cakes at once, Hor. S. 2, 8, 24: “procubuit moriens et humum semel ore momordit,once for all, Verg. A. 11, 418; cf.: nulla reparabilis arte Laesa pudicitia est; “deperit illa semel,Ov. H. 5, 104: “semel aeternā nocte premenda fui,id. ib. 10, 112: “nobis vero homicidio semel interdicto,once for all, Tert. Apol. 9: “sic et semel Christus oblatus est,Vulg. Heb. 9, 28; id. 1 Pet. 3, 18: “quoniam se semel a caeli contemplatione averterunt,Lact. 6, 1, 7; “hence in Florus: semel in perpetuum,Flor. 2, 12, 2: “semel et in perpetuum,id. 3, 6, 7.—Of speech, at once, once for all, in a word, briefly: “cum postulasset, ut sibi fundus, cujus emptor erat, semel indicaretur,Cic. Off. 3, 15, 62 (for which, just before: “non plus quam semel): interim, quod pluribus collegit adversarius, satis est semel proponere,Quint. 5, 13, 14; cf.: “ut semel, plura complectar,id. 11, 1, 66; 1, 2, 24; 2, 15, 34: “ut semel dicam,id. 10, 1, 17: “ut, quod sentio, semel finiam,id. 5, 13, 3; cf.: “quisquam denique, ut semel finiam, in lite cantat?id. 11, 3, 59; so (after denique) id. 10, 3, 22.—
B. In a succession = primum, primo, the first time, first: “demonstravimus, L. Vibullium Rufum bis in potestatem pervenisse Caesaris, semel ad Corfinium, iterum in Hispaniā,Caes. B. C. 3, 10; so after bis, with iterum, Liv. 1, 19, 3; Suet. Caes. 36; id. Aug. 25; id. tib. 6 Oud.; 72; id. Claud. 6; after ter, with iterum and tertio, Liv. 23, 9, 11.—Without iterum, etc.: “cum ad idem, unde semel profecta sunt, cuncta astra redierint,Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24; cf.: “uti exorta est semel,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 118.—
2. In gen., like primum, to denote the simple antecedence of an occurrence; hence, most freq. with the particles ut, ubi, quando, cum, si, etc., once, ever, at some time, at any time: “quod semel dixi, haud mutabo,what I have once said, Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 85: “quod Complacitum est semel,id. Am. prol. 106: “satis sum semel deceptus,id. Capt. 3, 5, 99: “verebamini, ne non id facerem quod recepissem semel?Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 9: “nec accidere, ut quisquam te timere incipiat eorum, qui semel a te sint liberati timore,Cic. Deiot. 14, 39: “in id, quod semel invasit, incumbit,Quint. 2, 12, 2: “retrahi nequitum, quoquo progressa est semel, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Fest. s. v. nequitum, p. 162 Müll.—So too in the comically formed proper name: Quodsemelarripides,Plaut. Pers. 4, 6, 23.—With particles; with ut: “in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit, semel ut emigravimus,Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 40: “ut occepi semel,id. Am. 3, 1, 13: “ut semel eloquentia evecta est,Cic. Brut. 13, 51: “ut semel gloriam consecutus sum,id. Att. 1, 19, 6; Caes. B. G. 1, 31: “denique ut semel finiam,Quint. 9, 4, 138.—With ubi: “ubi erit accubitum semel,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 105: “ubi animus semel cupiditate se devinxit malā,Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 34; 2, 4, 12; Liv. 22, 2.—With quandoquidem: “perge, quandoquidem occepisti semel,Plaut. Merc. 3, 4, 34.—With quando: “quando in apertum semel discrimen evasura esset res,Liv. 10, 14, 8.—With cum: “quae proclivius ad perniciem, cum semel coepit, labitur,Cic. Lael. 12, 41.—With quoniam: “(Antonius) quoniam semel induxit animum, sibi licere quod vellet, etc.,Cic. Att. 14, 13, 6; “Ov H. 12, 11: illam partem, quoniam semel ita vobis placuit, non recusabo quominus perpoliam,Cic. de Or 2, 28, 121; id. Rosc. Am. 11, 31; id. Phil. 12, 7, 18; Liv. 40, 13, 7.—With si: “si semel amoris peculum accepit, Extemplo et ipsus periit et res,Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 22; so, “si semel,id. Mil. 3, 3, 42: “si istam semel amiseris libertatem,id. ib. 3, 1, 106 Brix ad loc.; Ov. M. 13, 101: “si illum semel prehendero,Plaut. Ep. 3, 1, 6: “si semel animum tuom perspexerit,Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 69: “et semel emissum volat inrevocabile verbam,Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 71 (but, semel si, if once, if ever, whenever, as an emphatic numeral, Plaut. As. 1, 3, 66; id. Capt. 1, 2, 8; v. supra, I. init.).—With participles (several times in Liv. and Quint.): ut adversando remorandoque incitato semel militi adderent impetum, Liv. 2, 45, 7; so id. 5, 6, 8; 25, 6, 15; Quint. 4, 2, 115; 7, 10, 9; 10, 7, 24 al.
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