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servĭtūs , ūtis (
I.gen. plur. servitutium, Dig. 8, 2, 32 fin.; 8, 3, 1 fin.; and acc. to Ritschl also Plaut. Pers. 3, 3, 14), f. id., the condition of a servus; slavery, serfdom, service, servitude (freq. and class.).
I. Lit.: “servitus est constitutio juris gentium, quā quis dominio alieno contra naturam subicitur,Dig. 1, 5, 4; Just. Inst. 1, 3, 2: “servitutem servire,Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 31 (v. this freq. occurring phrase under servio, I. δ): quibus nunc aerumna mea libertatem paro, Quibus servitutem mea miseria deprecor? Enn. ap. Gell. 6, 16, 9 (Trag. v. 173 Vahl.): “domi fuistis liberi: Nunc servitus si evenit, etc.,Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4: “qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater servitutis,id. Am. 1, 1, 24 Fleck.: quis hoc imperium, quis hanc servitutem ferre potest? Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17: “ipsam (mulierem) in servitutem adjudicare,Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 56: “ista corruptela servi si impunita fuerit ... fit in dominatu servitus, in servitute dominatus,id. Deiot. 11, 30: “mors servituti anteponenda,id. Off. 1, 23, 81: “servitutem perpessi,id. Phil. 8, 11, 32: “aliae nationes servitutem pati possunt, populi Romani est propria libertas,id. ib. 6, 7, 19: “servitutem pati,id. ib. 6, 7, 19: similitudo servitutis id. Rep. 1, 27, 43: hunc nimis liberum populum libertas ipsā servitute afficit, etc... Nimia illa libertas in nimiam servitutem cadit, id. ib. 1, 44, 68: “socios nostros in servitutem abduxerunt,id. Pis. 34, 84: “servitutis jugum,id. Rep. 2, 25, 47: “Themistocles cum servitute Graeciam liberasset,id. Lael. 12, 42: “conjuges in servitutem abstrahi,Caes. B. G. 7, 14; “addicere aliquem in servitutem,Liv. 3, 56; Caes. B. G. 7, 77: “liberum populum servitute adficere,Cic. Rep. 1, 44, 68: “asserere aliquem in servitutem,Liv. 3, 44, 5; 34, 18, 2; Suet. Tib. 2.—*
(β). As a verbal noun with dat.: opulento homini hoc servitus dura est, this serving or being servant of a rich man, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 12.—
II. Transf.
A. In gen. (acc to servio, II.), servitude, subjection: numquam salvis suis exuitur servitus muliebris; “et ipsae libertatem, quam viduitas et orbitas facit, detestantur,Liv. 34, 7 Drak.: “silvestres gallinae in servitute non foetant,in confinement, Col. 8, 12; so id. 8, 15, 7: “hujus tanti officii servitutem astringebam testimonio sempiterno,Cic. Planc. 30, 74: “est enim in illis ipsa merces auctoramentum servitutis,id. Off. 1, 42, 150; cf.: “ut se homines ad servitutem juris astringerent,Quint. 2, 16, 9; 7, 3, 16.—
B. The government, rule, dominion of a master: “tibi Apud me justa et clemens servitus,Ter. And. 1, 1, 9.—
C. (Acc. to servio, II. B.) Jurid. t. t., of buildings, lands, etc., a liability resting upon them, an easement, servitude: “servitutes praediorum rusticorum sunt hae: iter, actus, via, aquaeductus,Dig. 8, 3, 1: “jura praediorum urbanorum, quae servitutes vocantur,Gai. Inst. 2, 14: “servitute fundo illi imposita,Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 2, § 3: “specus servitutis putat aliquid habituros,id. Att. 15, 26, 4.—
D. Concr. (for the class. servitium), slaves, servants (collect.); poet. of lovers: adde quod pubes tibi crescit omnis, Servitus crescit nova (= catervae amatorum semper novorum). Hor. C. 2, 8, 18; cf. Plaut. Pers. 3, 3, 14 Ritschl.
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