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sal , sălis (
I.neutr. collat. form of the nom. sălĕ , Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 26, or Ann. v. 378 Vahl.; Varr. ap. Non. 223, 17; also, in the regular form sometimes neutr. in sing., v. infra, I.; but plur. always sales, m.; cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 697 sq.; dat. plur.: infusis salis, Fabian. ap. Charis. p. 82 P.), m. root sal-, to stream, flow; cf. ἅλς; perh. also found in insula, salix.
I. Lit., salt.
a. Sing.
(α). Masc.: ex sale, qui apud Carthaginienses fit, Cato ap. Prisc. p. 659 P.: “salem candidum sic facito,id. R. R. 88; Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 8; Col. 6, 17, 7; 8, 6 Schneid. N. cr.; 12, 6, 2; 12, 21, 2 al.; Plin. 31, 7, 39, § 73; Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 95; id. Curc. 4, 4, 6; id. Pers. 3, 3, 25; Sall. Fragm. ap. Charis. p. 82 P., and ap. Prisc. p. 644 ib.; Hor. S. 1, 5, 46 et saep.—Prov.: “salem cum pane edit,Plin. 31, 8, 41, § 89.—
(β). Neutr.: nunc vides in conviviis ita poni et sal et mel, Varr. ap. Charis. p. 82 P.; so, aliud, Fabian. ib. p. 82 P.; “tritum,Veg. 2, 24, 4 al.; v. also infra, II.—
b. Plur.: “quin aspergi solent sales: melior fossilis quam marinus,Varr. R. R. 2, 11, 6; Col. 7, 4, 8; 8, 6, 1; Pall. 9, 2 Mai; id. Nov. 19; Fabian. ap. Charis. p. 82 P.; Ov. M. 15, 286.—
B. Meton.
1. Poet., the salt water, brine, sea.
a. Sing., Enn. 1. 1.: “supra rorem salis edita pars est remorum,Lucr. 4, 438: “et sale tabentes artus in litore ponunt,Verg. A. 1, 173; 1, 35; 3, 385; 5, 848; 5, 866; 6, 697; 10, 214; Ov. P. 1, 1, 70; Val. Fl. 4, 722.—
b. Plur.: “sales amari,Ov. M. 15, 286: “aequorei,Luc. 10, 257.—
2. A speck on precious stones shaped like a grain of salt.Sing.: “sal,Plin. 37, 6, 22, § 83; 37, 8, 37, § 117; 37, 2, 10, § 28.—Plur.: “sales,Plin. 37, 2, 8, § 22.—
II. Trop.
A. Intellectual acuteness, good sense, shrewdness, cunning, wit, facetiousness, sarcasm, a witticism, witty saying (class. in sing. and plur.; “syn.: lepos, facetiae, festivitas): (sal) adeo necessarium elementum est, ut transierit intellectus ad voluptates animi quoque. Nam ita sales appellantur, omnisque vitae lepos et summa hilaritas laborumque requies non alio magis vocabulo constat,Plin. 31, 7, 41, § 88.
(β). Neutr. (ante-class.): quicquid loquitur, sal merum est, Afran. ap. Prisc. p. 659 P.; so, (puella) Χαρίτων μία, tota merum sal, Lucr. 4, 1162.—
B. (Borrowed from the use of salt as a relish.) Good taste, elegance: “tectum antiquitus constitutum plus salis quam sumptūs habebat,Nep. Att. 13, 2.—
C. Sharpness, pungency, stimulus, incentive: “quae (sc. calor, sanguis) aviditatem naturali sale augent,Plin. 10, 72, 93, § 198.
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