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sĭmŭlācrum , i, n. simulo, an image formed in the likeness of a thing,
I.a likeness, image, form, representation, semblance (class.; syn.: imago, effigies, signum).
I. Lit., of images formed by art, reflected in a mirror, or seen in a dream; of apparitions, visions, etc. (the latter mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose).
b. Adverb.: ad or per simulacrum (like ad similitudinem, formam), in the form of, after the pattern of: “aurata aedes ad simulacrum templi Veneris collocata,Suet. Caes. 84: “ad simulacrum ignium ardens Pharus,id. Flor. 4, 2, 88; cf.: “ad simulacrum caelestium siderum,id. ib. 1, 2, 3: “digiti per litterarum simulacra ducuntur,Sen. Ep. 94, 51.—
2. In the philosoph. lang. of Lucret. (like the Gr. εἴδωλον and the Lat. spectrum), the form or image of an object of sense or thought presented to the mind; a representation, idea, conception, Lucr. 2, 112; 4, 130; 4, 149 sq.—
3. Of mnemonic signs, types, or emblems: “ut res ipsas rerum effigies notaret atque ut locis pro cerā, simulacris pro litteris uteremur,Cic. de Or. 2, 86, 354.—
4. A description, a portraiture of character: “non inseram simulacrum viri copiosi (Catonis), quae dixerit referendo,Liv. 45, 25.—
II. In partic., with the predominant idea of mere imitation (opp. to that which is original or real), a shadow, semblance, appearance, etc.: “simulacrum aliquod ac vestigium civitatis,Cic. Fam. 10, 1, 1; cf.: “simulacra virtutis,id. Off. 1, 15, 46; and: “haec simulacra sunt auspiciorum, auspicia nullo modo,id. Div. 2, 33, 71: “libertatis,Tac. A. 1, 77: “belli simulacra cientes,” i.e. mock-fights, sham-fights, Lucr. 2, 41; 2, 324: “pugnaeque cient simulacra sub armis,Verg. A. 5, 585; 5, 674; Sil. 16, 529; 7, 119; cf.: “simulacrum navalis pugnae,Liv. 26, 51, 6; 35, 26, 2: “quibusdam pugnae simulacris ad verum discrimen aciemque justam consuescimus,Quint. 2, 10, 8; so, “ludicrum pugnae,Liv. 40, 9: “decurrentis exercitūs,id. 44, 9: “vindemiae,Tac. A. 11, 31: “civilitatis particulae,Quint. 2, 15, 25: “inania,id. 10, 5, 17.
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