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spēro , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a.
I. To hope (something desirable), to look for, trust, expect; to promise or flatter one's self (the predom. signif. of the word; syn.: confido, exspecto).
(α). Absol.: spero, si speres quicquam prodesse potes sunt, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 333 Müll. (Ann. v. 410 Vahl.): “quoad Pompeius in Italiā fuit, sperare non destiti,Cic. Att. 9, 10, 3: “sperat animus,Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 36: “ut neque accusator timere neque reus sperare debuerit,Cic. Clu. 7, 20: “jubes bene sperare et bono esse animo,id. Deiot. 14, 38: “Attica nostra quid agat, scire cupio: etsi tuae litterae recte sperare jubent,id. Att. 13, 17: “tu jam, ut spero et ut promittis, aderis,id. ib. 16, 3, 4: “omnia experiar et, ut spero, assequar ... Sed, ut spero, valebis,id. ib. 7, 2, 6: “ut mihi detis hanc veniam accommodatam huic reo, vobis, quemadmodum spero, non molestam,id. Arch. 2, 3: “Argyrippus exorari spero poterit, ut sinat, etc.,Plaut. As. 5, 2, 67; cf.: Ch. Non usus veniet, spero. Sy. Spero hercle ego quoque, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 42: “interea fiet aliquid, spero,id. And. 2, 1, 14: salvus sit; “spero,id. Ad. 3, 3, 57.—
(β). With acc.: “his omnibus victoriam sperantibus pacis nomen adferemus,Cic. Phil. 12, 5, 10: “consulatum,id. ib. 12, 6, 14: “gloriam sperabit a latronum gregibus,id. ib. 12, 10, 26: magis adversos rerum exitus metuens quam sperans secundos, id. Fam. 6, 14, 1: “id ego et speraram prudentiā tuā fretus, et, ut confiderem, fecerunt tuae litterae,id. ib. 12, 18: a quo nihil speres boni rei publicae, quia non vult; “nihil metuas mali, quia non audet,id. Att. 1, 13, 2: “a quo genere hominum victoriam sperasset,Caes. B. C. 3, 96 fin.: “omnia ex victoriā et ex suā liberalitate sperarent,id. ib. 3, 6; cf. id. ib. 3, 60: “quibus (tormentis) ipsi magna speravissent,id. ib. 2, 16 fin.: “spero meliora,Cic. Att. 14, 16, 3: “aliquid sibi,id. Tusc. 1, 36, 86; Sall. C. 37, 6: “bona alicuius,Cic. Phil. 11, 6, 13: “hoc sperans, ut, etc.,Caes. B. C. 3, 85: “sperare victoriam ab aliquo,id. B. C. 3, 96: quod sapienter speravimus, perseveranter consectari, have expected, Col. praef. § “29: sperata gloria (opp. parta),Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15; Liv. 28, 41, 6: “sperata praeda,Caes. B. G. 6, 8: “spem speratam quom optulisti,Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 2: “civitatem optandam magis quam sperandam quam minimam posuit,Cic. Rep. 2, 30, 52; Liv. 4, 15, 5: “exitum malis sperare,Sall. C. 40, 2: “amicitiam, regnum,id. J. 24, 5: “mortem honestam,id. H. 2, 41, 2 Dietsch: “salutem,id. C. 58, 16: “spes,Curt. 5, 10, 1: “mali poenam, Lact. de Ira, 16, 8: perpetuam felicitatem,Suet. Aug. 94; id. Vesp. 12; Sen. Ira, 3, 31, 2; Just. 21, 2, 5: “sperat infestis, metuit secundis Alteram sortem bene praeparatum Pectus,Hor. C. 2, 10, 13: “grata superveniat, quae non sperabitur hora,id. Ep. 1, 4, 14 et saep.: dis sum fretus, deos sperabimus, we will hope or trust in the gods, Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 38; cf. id. Mil. 4, 5, 10; id. Cist. 2, 3, 52.—
(γ). With obj.-clause (so most freq.; usually with inf. fut.; less freq. but class. with inf. pres. or perf.).—With inf. fut.: “ego me confido liberum fore, tu te numquam speras,Plaut. Pers. 2, 4, 15; Cic. Rep. 1, 20, 33: “ex quibus sperant se maximum fructum esse capturos,id. Lael. 21, 79: “quod amicitiae nostrae memoriam spero sempiternam fore, etc.,id. ib. 4, 15: “tu fac animo forti magnoque sis, speresque fore, ut, etc.,id. Fam. 1, 5, 6 fin.; cf.: “spero fore, ut contingat id nobis,id. Tusc. 1, 34, 82 et saep.— With inf. pres.: “qui istoc te speras modo Potesse dissimulando infectum hoc reddere,Plaut. Most. 4, 3, 22: “spero me habere, qui hunc excruciem,Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 11: “sperat se a me avellere,id. ib. 3, 3, 14: “totius Galliae sese potiri posse sperant,Caes. B. G. 1, 3: “spero, quae tua prudentia est, et hercule, ut me jubet Acastus, confido te jam, ut volumus, valere,Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1: “sperabam tuum adventum appropinquare,id. Fam. 4, 6, 3: “speremus, nostrum nomen volitare et vagari latissime,id. Rep. 1, 17, 26: “spero te mihi ignoscere, si, etc.,id. Fam. 1, 6, 2: “spero esse, ut volumus,id. Att. 12, 6 b, 4: “ita quiddam spero nobis profici, cum, etc.,id. ib. 1, 1; Sall. H. 4, 61, 2 Dietsch: “speramus carmina fingi posse,Hor. A. P. 331: neque ego hanc abscondere furto Speravi, ne finge, fugam, I did not hope or expect, Verg. A. 4, 338.—So esp. when used like Engl. hope, in the sense trust, believe: “spero nostram amicitiam non egere testibus,Cic. Fam. 2, 2: “id enim deos immortalis spero aequissimum judicare,id. Phil. 11, 15, 39; cf. infra, II. fin.—With inf. perf.: “speravi miser Ex servitute me exemisse filium,Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 99: “me ejus spero fratrem propemodum Jam repperisse,Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 123: “sperabam jam defervisse adulescentiam,id. Ad. 1, 2, 72: spero tibi me causam probasse; “cupio quidem certe,Cic. Att. 1, 1, 4: “spero cum Crassipede nos confecisse,id. Q. Fr. 2, 4, 2: “et tum mirifice sperabat se esse locutum,Cat. 84, 3: “sperasse libertatem se civium suorum emisse,Liv. 4, 15, 6: “sperabam ita notata me reliquisse genera, etc.,Cic. Fam. 7, 32, 1; id. Att. 2, 21, 2; 10, 7, 3. —Ellipt.: “qui semper vacuam, semper amabilem Sperat (sc. te fore),Hor. C. 1, 5, 11.—
(δ). With ut and subj.: “quoniam, ut salvum vellent tyrannum, sperare non poterat,Liv. 34, 27, 3: “ut patiatur ... nec sperandum ulli nec concupiscendum est,Sen. ad Polyb. 18, 6; Just. 5, 3, 3.—( ) In a Greek construction, with fut. part.: “visura et quamvis numquam speraret Ulixen, etc. (for se visuram esse),Prop. 2, 9, 7 Paley ad loc.—(ζ) With de (very rare): “neque de otio nostro spero jam,Cic. Att. 9, 7, 5; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 2, § 6: de eo bene sperare (with obj.clause, cf. γ supra), Nep. Milt. 1, 1.—
II. To look for, expect, apprehend that which is undesired, ἐλπίζω (rare, and mostly poet.; “in Cic. only with non, and ironically): nam quod tu speres, propulsabo facile,Ter. And. 2, 3, 21: “mihi non hoc miserae sperare jubebas, Sed conubia laeta,Cat. 64, 140: “haec merui sperare? dabis mihi, perfida, poenas,Prop. 2, 5, 3: “hunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem, Et perferre, soror, potero,Verg. A. 4, 419 (cf. Quint. 8, 2, 3); cf. Flor. 3, 1, 1: “haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt Tempore, cum, etc.,Verg. A. 11, 275: “mene efferre pedem, genitor, te posse relicto Sperasti?id. ib. 2, 658; cf. Suet. Caes. 60: “si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, At sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi,expect, fear, Verg. A. 1, 543: “exstinguine mea Speravi te posse manu,Val. Fl. 3, 295: “aliquod in Africā bellum,Flor. 3, 1, 1: “jam quartanam sperantibus aegris,Juv. 4, 57.—With a negative particle: Sc. Moneo ego te: te deseret ille aetate et satietate. Ph. Non spero. Sc. Insperata accidunt magis saepe quam quae speres, Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 40: id quod non spero, Afran ap. Charis. p. 195 P.: “sin a vobis, id quod non spero, deserar,Cic. Rosc. Am. 4, 10: te tam mobili in me meosque esse animo non sperabam, Q. Metell. ap. Cic. Fam. 5, 1, 2: “non speravi te sequi,Stat. Th. 6, 139.—Ironically: “quoniam haec satis spero vobis molesta videri,Cic. de Or. 3, 13, 51.—Hence, spērātus , a, um, P. a., that is hoped or longed for; as subst.: spērātus , i, m.; spērāta , ae, f., a betrothed, intended, a lover; a bride (ante- and post-class.): curre et nuntia Venire me et mecum speratum adducere, Afran. ap. Non. 174, 31: “sperata, salve,Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 97; so, sperata, id. Fragm. ap. Varr. L. L. 6, 7, 71; Afran. ap. Non. 174, 33; Arn. 4, 140; Hyg. Fab. 31; 33.—Once also of a wife not seen for a long time: “Amphitruo uxorem salutat laetus speratam suam,Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 53.
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