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^prā (orig. form sŭpĕrā , Lucr. 1, 429; 4, 672; 5, 1407; Cic. poët. N. D. 2, 42, 106; cf. Prisc. pp. 980 and 1001 P.), adv. and prep. superus.
I. Adv., on the upper side, on the top, above.
A. Lit., of place: “omnia haec, quae supra et subter, unum esse dixerunt,Cic. de Or. 3, 5, 20: “partes eae, quae sunt infra quam id, quod devoratur, dilatantur, quae autem supra, contrahuntur,id. N. D. 2, 54, 135: “magno numero jumentorum in flumine supra atquo infra constituto,Caes. B. C. 1, 64; and: “et mare, quod supra, teneant, quodque alluit infra,Verg. A. 8, 149: “oleum supra siet,Cato, R. R. 119; 101: “cotem illam et novaculam defossam in comitio supraque impositum puteal accepimus,Cic. Div. 1, 17, 33: “toto vertice supra est,” i. e. is taller, Verg. A. 11, 683: ut letata corpora vidit Victoremque supra hostem, i. e. lying or stretched over them, Ov. M. 3, 56; cf.: “stupet inscia supra,Verg. A. 7, 381.—Comp.: “alia superius rapiuntur,upward, on high, Sen. Q. N. 5, 8, 3: piscina superius construenda, Pall. 1, 34, 2 (opp. subterius, Isid. 16, 8, 4).—
B. Trop.
1. Of time, before, formerly, previously (esp. of any thing previously said or written): “quae supra scripta est,Cato, R. R. 157, 2: “quod jam supra tibi ostendimus,Lucr. 1, 429: “quae supra dixi,Cic. de Or. 3, 55, 208: “quae supra scripsi,id. Fam. 6, 10, 2: “quem supra deformavi,id. Caecin. 5, 14: “uti supra demonstravimus,Caes. B. G. 2, 1: “ut supra dixi,Cic. Rep. 2, 4, 9; id. Lael. 4, 15; 14, 48: “ut supra scripsi,Plin. Ep. 6, 27, 5: “de quo (filio) commemoravi supra,Nep. Dion, 6, 2: “supra repetere,farther back, from past times, Sall. C. 5, 9; id. J. 5, 3; Tac. A. 16, 18.—Comp.: “quantum valerent inter homines litterae, Dixi superius,before, farther back, Phaedr. 4, 23, 2: ut superius demonstravimus, Auct. B. Hisp. 28, 4; 34, 5.—
2. Of number or measure, beyond, over, more: “supra adjecit Aeschrio,offered higher, more, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 33, § 77: “amor tantus ut nihil supra possit,id. Fam. 14, 1, 4: “ita accurate, ut nihil posset supra,id. Att. 13, 19, 3: “nihil pote supra,Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 11: “voltu Adeo modesto, ut nihil supra,id. And. 1, 1, 93; id. Eun. 3, 1, 37: “nihil supra Deos lacesso,Hor. C. 2, 18, 11.—After et or aut (poet. and post-class.): “agrum fortasse trecentis Aut etiam supra nummorum milibus emptum,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 165: “quot illum putas annos secum tulisse? Septuaginta et supra,Petr. 43 fin.: “tricena aut supra stipendia numerantes,Tac. A. 1, 35: “a triginta annis et supra,Vulg. Num. 4, 23; 4, 30; 4, 35 (cf. II. B. 2. infra).—
b. With quam, less freq. quod, above or beyond what, more than: “saepe supra feret, quam fieri possit,Cic. Or. 40, 139: “corpus patiens inediae, algoris, vigiliae, supra quam cuiquam credibile est,Sall. C. 5, 3; id. J. 24, 5: “dominandi supra quam aestimari potest avidissimus,Aur. Vict. Epit. 1 med.: “supra quam optari potuit,Amm. 17, 1, 12: “supra quod capere possum,Dig. 32, 1, 28.—
II. Prep. with acc., above, over.
2. In partic., of geographical position, above, beyond: supra Maeotis paludes, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 5, 17, 49 (Epigr. v. 7, p. 163 Vahl.): “supra Suessulam,Liv. 23, 32, 2: “Syene oppidum, quod est supra Alexandriam quinque millibus stadiorum,Plin. 2, 73, 75, § 183; “supra Britanniam,id. 2, 97, 99, § 217. —
B. Trop.
1. Of time, before: “paulo supra hanc memoriam,Caes. B. G. 6, 19; supra septingentesimum annum, Liv. praef. § 4.—
2. Of number, degree, or quantity.
(α). With numbers, = plus, amplius (not in Cic. or Cæs.), over, above, beyond, more than: “supra quattuor milia hominum orabunt ut, etc.,Liv. 43, 3, 2: “caesa eo die supra milia viginti,id. 30, 35, 3; 3, 31, 4: “supra septem milia hominum domos remisit,id. 21, 23, 6; 23, 17, 2; 23, 37, 11 sq.; 23, 49, 13; Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 17; 3, 6, 1; 3, 7, 11: “supra duos menses sapor ejus non permanet integer,Col. 12, 49, 3: “tres (cyathos),Hor. C. 3, 19, 15.—
(β). In gen.: “quibus solida ungula, nec supra geminos fetus,Plin. 11, 40, 95, § 233; cf.: “de floribus supra dictus scripsit Theophrastus,besides, id. 21, 3, 9, § 13: “hominis fortunam,Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 41: “ratio supra hominem putanda est deoque tribuenda,id. N. D. 2, 13, 34: “potentia, quae supra leges se esse velit,id. Ep. ad Brut. 1, 17, 6: “humanam supra fortunam,Phaedr. 4, 24, 24: “supra Coclites Muciosque id facinus esse,Liv. 2, 13, 8: “modum,id. 21, 7, 7; Col. 4, 27, 4: “vires,Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 22: humanam fidem Plin. 34, 7, 17, § 38: morem, Verg. G. 2, 227; Sall. C. 3, 2: “supra belli Latini metum id quoque accesserat, quod,besides, Liv. 2, 18, 3.—Prov.: “supra homines, supra ire deos pietate,” i. e. to attain the highest degree, Verg. A. 12, 839 Heyne ad loc.—
3. Sometimes to indicate that over which one is placed as superintendent (mostly postclass.): “dispositi, quos supra somnum habebat,watchers, Curt. 6, 11, 3: “qui supra bibliothecam fuerunt,Vitr. 7, praef. § “5: servus supra rationes positus,Pseudo Quint. Decl. 353: “SVPRA INSVLAS,Inscr. Orell. 721 and 2927: “SVPRA IVMENTA,ib. 2870: “SVPRA VELARIOS,ib. 2967: “SVPRA COCOS,ib. 2827; Inscr. Grut. p. 1111, 1.—
III. Compounds formed with supra are extremely rare. In late Lat. supradictus, suprafatus, suprafundo, suprajacio, supranatans, suprasedeo, etc., are found, but here supra is properly written separately as an adv.; only suprascando (v. h. v.), on account of its signif., is to be written as one word.
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