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tum ,
I.adv. demonstr., of time [pronom. demonstr. stems to-, ta-; Gr. το, seen in ita, tam, etc.; cf. quom or cum], then.
I. Absol.
A. Referring to a time previously specified.
1. To a definite past time.
(α). To a period of time in which something was or happened (opp. later periods) = illis temporibus: “is dictu'st ollis popularibus olim Qui tum vivebant homines,Enn. Ann. v. 308 Vahl.: “quod tum erat res in pecore et locorum possessionibus, i. e. Romuli temporibus,Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 16: “cum illi male dicerent, quod tum fieri licebat, i. e. Periclis temporibus,id. de Or. 3, 34, 138: “erat omnino tum mos ut faciles essent in suum cuique tribuendo,id. Brut. 21, 85; cf. id. Tusc. 1, 46, 111: “vastae tum in his locis solitudines erant,Liv. 1, 4, 6; 2, 6, 8; 3, 29, 3; 4, 6, 12; 42, 62, 11; “44, 9, 4: ut tum erant tempora,Nep. Att. 1, 2; 12, 3; Liv. 1, 3, 3; 1, 8, 4; 2, 7, 4; 2, 9, 8; 2, 50, 2; 2, 63, 6; “39, 6, 7 and 9.—With illis temporibus: nam jam tum illis temporibus fortius ... loquebantur quam pugnabant,Nep. Thras. 2, 4.—
(β). Referring to a point of time, then, at that time: “insigneita fere tum milia militum octo Duxit,Enn. Ann. v. 336 Vahl.: ut jacui exsurgo; “ardere censui aedis: ita tum confulgebant,Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 15: “jam duo restabant fata tum,id. Bacch. 4, 9, 35; id. Cist. 1, 3, 14: quot eras annos gnatus tum, quom, etc.? Me Septuennis, nam tum dentes mihi cadebant primulum, id. Men. 5, 9, 56; id. Merc. prol. 66; id. Most. 1, 2, 49; id. Am. 2, 1, 56; Ter. And. 1, 1, 82: sic igitur tum se levis ac diffusilis aether ... undique flexit. Lucr. 5, 467; 5, 837; 5, 911; 5, 432; “5, 942: atque huic anno proximus Sulla consule et Pompejo fuit. Tum P. Sulpicii in tribunatu, cottidie contionantis, totum genus dicendi cognovimus,Cic. Brut. 89, 306; id. Ac. 2, 22, 69: “scribit Eudemum Pheras venisse, quae erat urbs in Thessaliā tum admodum nobilis,id. Div. 1, 25, 53; id. Rep. 2, 37, 63: “hi tum in Asiā rhetorum principes,id. Brut. 91, 316; id. Sest. 11, 26; id. Planc. 37, 90; id. Quint. 61, 170; id. Fam. 9, 21, 2: “hoc tum veritus Caesar Pharum prehendit,Caes. B. C. 3, 112: “eodem anno a Campanis Cumae, quam Graeci tum urbem tenebant, capiuntur,Liv. 4, 44, 13; 1, 7, 14; 2, 9, 5; “2, 37, 7: praetores tum duos Latium habebat,id. 8, 3, 9: “Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant, dictatorem dixit,id. 8, 12, 13; 5, 8, 4; 22, 46, 6; “1, 7, 12: tum Athenis perpetui archontes esse desierunt,Vell. 1, 8, 3: “tum Cimbri et Teutoni transcendere Rhenum,id. 2, 8, 3; Val. Max. 1, 5, 3; Tac. H. 4, 49; 3, 57: “non timido, non ignavo cessare tum licuit,Curt. 3, 11, 5: “Archiae, qui tum maximum magistratum Thebis obtinebat,Nep. Pelop. 3, 2; id. Phoc. 3, 3.—With in eo tempore: eum quem virile secus tum in eo tempore habebat, Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 5.—Repeated by anaphora: “quae nox omnium temporum conjurationis acerrima fuit. Tum Catilinae dies exeundi, tum ceteris manendi condicio, tum descriptio ... constituta est, tum tuus pater, etc.,Cic. Sull. 18, 52; cf. Lucr. 5, 1377; 5, 1399.—
(γ). Esp., referring to a former state, implying that it no longer exists: “quaesivit ex lege illā Corneliā quae tum erat,Cic. Clu. 20, 55: “cum sententias Oppianicus, quae tum erat potestas, palam ferri velle dixisset,id. ib. 27, 75: “Caere, opulento tum oppido,Liv. 1, 2, 3; 3, 52, 3: “praetores aerarii (nam tum a praetoribus tractabatur aerarium), etc.,Tac. H. 4, 9.—
(δ). Expressly opposed to present time (hodie, nunc, hoc tempore, etc.; class. and very freq.; but in post-Aug. writers tunc is regularly used): prius non is eras qui eras; “nunc is factu's qui tum non eras,Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 138: “tu nunc tibi Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopiā?Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 25; id. Hec. 3, 3, 48: “quae tabula, tum imperio tuo revulsa, nunc a me tamen reportata est,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 46, § 112: “tum imperator populi Romani deos patrios reportabat, nunc praetor ejusdem populi eosdem illos deos ... auferebat,id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 77; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 78; 2, 5, 20, § 51; id. Clu. 31, 86; id. Planc. 9, 22; id. Quint. 22, 71; id. Phil. 14, 8, 21; id. Leg. 2, 22, 57; Caes. B. C. 3, 17; Liv. 5, 3, 5; 6, 15, 11; 10, 9, 6.—(ε) Opposed to another time specified: “itaque tum eos exire jussit. Post autem e provinciā litteras ad conlegium misit, se, etc.,Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11: “itaque ut tum carere rege, sic pulso Tarquinio nomen regis audire non poterat,id. Rep. 2, 30, 53; id. Mil. 21, 55: “sicut legatorum antea, ita tum novorum colonorum caede imbutis armis,Liv. 4, 31, 7; 39, 22, 10; 9, 36, 1; 2, 52, 7; 4, 2, 10; 4, 57, 11; “21, 17, 1: et tum sicca, prius celeberrima fontibus, Ide,Ov. M. 2, 218; Verg. A. 11, 33; Nep. Arist. 2, 3; id. Ham. 11, 7.—(ζ) In the historians in applying general statements or truths to the state of affairs spoken of: communi enim fit vitio naturae ut invisis atque incognitis rebus ... vehementius exterreamur; “ut tum accidit,Caes. B. C. 2, 4; 3, 68; id. B. G. 7, 3; 2, 6; id. B. C. 1, 80: “foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodem modo omnia fiunt. Tum ita factum accepimus,Liv. 1, 24, 4; 1, 32, 14; 21, 31, 12.— (η) Denoting coincidence or inner connection with an action before mentioned = a temporal clause (tum = cum hoc fieret), then, on that occasion: “quis tum non ingemuit?Cic. Vatin. 13, 31: “ne tum quidem hominum venustatem et facetias perspicere potuisti? i. e. cum coronam auream imponebant,id. Fl. 31, 76: apud imperitos tum illa dicta sunt; “nunc agendum est subtilius,id. Fin. 4, 27, 74: “itaque tum Stajenus condemnatus est,” i. e. in that trial, id. Clu. 36, 101; id. Sen. 7, 22: “M. Porcius Cato qui, asper ingenio, tum lenem mitemque senatorem egit,Liv. 45, 25; Val. Max. 8, 3, 3: “sed tum supplicia dis ... decernuntur,Tac. A. 3, 64; 3, 72: “Graecia tum potuit Priamo quoque flenda videri,Ov. M. 14, 474.— “With the occasion referred to specified in the same clause: Manlius ... ex petulanti scurrā in discordiis civitatis ad eam columnam tum suffragiis populi pervenerat,Cic. Clu. 13, 39: “emisti tum in naufragio hujus urbis ... tum, inquam, emisti ut, etc.,id. Prov. Cons. 4, 7.—Repeated by anaphora: et Capitolinis injecit sedibus ignes. Tum statua Nattae, tum simulacra deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice beluā vi fulminis icti conciderunt, Cic. Div. 2, 20, 45; “so repeated seven times,id. Rep. 1, 40, 62.—(θ) Redundant, the time of the action being clear without it (esp. in Cic.): “atque hoc tum judicio facto ... tamen Avitus Oppianicum reum statim non facit,Cic. Clu. 20, 56: “itaque tum ille inopiā et necessitate coactus ad Caepasios confugit,id. ib. 20, 57; id. Brut. 23, 90; 39, 145; 43, 161; cf. id. Sull. 18, 51, where tum redundant occurs six times successively.—
2. In oblique discourse, referring to the time of the speaker, = nunc in direct discourse: “quando autem se, si tum non sint, pares hostibus fore?if they were not now so, Liv. 3, 62, 1: “(dixit Sempronius) ... nec tum agrum plebi, sed sibi invidiam quaeri,id. 4, 44, 9; 4, 57, 4: “moenia eos tum transcendere non Italiae modo, sed etiam urbis Romanae,id. 21, 35, 9; 5, 21, 7 (in this use nunc is also freq.).—
3. Referring to indefinite time.
(α). Then, at such a time of the year, day, etc., at such a season: “tum denique tauros in gregem redigo (after Lyra rises),Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 12; 1, 35 fin.; Col. 11, 2, 87.—
(β). With the force of an indefinite temporal clause, at such a time, in such circumstances, i. e. when such a thing happens as has happened: “qui (porci) a partu decimo die habentur puri, ab eo appellantur sacres, quod tum ad sacrificium idonei habentur primum,Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 16; 2, 7, 13: “deinde cibum sequitur somnus ... quia plurima tum se corpora conturbant (i. e. cum cibum ceperunt),Lucr. 4, 957; 3, 599; 4, 892; 4, 919; “4, 1030: quam regionem cum superavit animus ... finem altius se efferendi facit. Tum enim sui similem et levitatem et calorem adeptus ... nullam in partem movetur,Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43; 1, 31, 75; 3, 23, 55; 4, 24, 54; Tac. Dial. 7.—
(γ). With the force of a conditional clause, then, in this instance, if so: immo res omnis relictas habeo prae quod tu velis. Ph. Tum tu igitur, quā causā missus es ad portum, id expedi (i. e. si ita est), Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 39; id. Most. 5, 1, 55; id. As. 1, 1, 93; 2, 2, 64; 3, 3, 36; id. Aul. 3, 6, 31; id. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 2, 78: non potitus essem; “fuisset tum illos mi aegre aliquot dies,Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 7; id. Eun. 2, 2, 50; 5, 1, 23; id. Hec. 3, 5, 12: “ego C. Caesaris laudibus desim, quas, etc.? Tum hercule me confitear non judicium aliquod habuisse,Cic. Planc. 39, 93: scribant aliquid Isocrateo more ...; “tum illos existimabo non desperatione formidavisse genus hoc,id. Or. 70, 235; id. Font. 21, 49 (17, 39); id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85; id. Fam. 9, 8, 2; Ov. H. 18 (19), 81: vellem tam ferax saeculum haberemus ...; “tum ego te primus hortarer, etc.,Plin. Ep. 4, 15, 8.—
4. Referring to future time.
(β). With the force of a conditional clause (cf. 3. β, supra), then, in this instance, if so: specta, tum scies. Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 100; cf.: “quom videbis, tum scies,id. ib. 1, 2, 37: tuom incendes genus; “Tum igitur aquae erit tibi cupido, etc.,id. Trin. 3, 2, 50; id. Curc. 2, 3, 17: “confer sudantes, ructantes, refertos epulis ... tum intelleges, etc.,Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 100; id. Planc. 18, 45; id. Phil. 2, 45, 115: “agedum, dictatorem creemus ... Pulset tum mihi lictorem qui sciet, etc.,Liv. 2, 29, 12; Cic. Phil. 10, 3, 6; id. Or. 23, 78; 71, 235; Liv. 4, 22, 11; 5, 16, 10; 9, 11, 4.—
B. Referring to a time subsequent to a time mentioned, then, thereupon.
1. Simple sequence in time.
(α). Time proper (only of an immediate sequence; “otherwise deinde, postea, etc., are used): tum cum corde suo divum pater atque hominum rex Effatur, etc.,Enn. Ann. 179: “dico ei quo pactod eam viderim erilem nostram filiam sustollere. Extimuit tum illa,Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 9; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 29; id. As. 4, 1, 58: tum ille egens forte adplicat Primum ad Chrysidis patrem se. Ter. And. 5, 4, 21; id. Eun. 3, 1, 17; Cato, R. R. 48 (49); 135 (136); so id. ib. 112 (113): equos quinto anno ... amittere binos (dentes); “tum renascentes eis sexto anno impleri,Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 2 sq.: collo cari jussit hominem in aureo lecto, abacosque complures ornavit ... Tum ad mensam eximiā formā pueros jussit consistere, eosque, etc., Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 61: “dixerat hoc ille, cum puer nuntiavit venire ad eum Laelium ... Tum Scipio e cubiculo est egressus, etc.,id. Rep. 1, 12, 18; id. Div. 2, 66, 135; id. Clu. 14, 40; id. Cat. 3, 5, 10; id. Ac. 2, 5, 13; id. Div. 1, 35, 77: “hostes suos ab oppugnatione reduxerunt. Tum suo more conclamaverunt ut, etc.,Caes. B. G. 5, 26; cf. id. ib. 7, 64; 5, 43 fin.; “5, 48: adsurgentem ibi regem cuspide ad terram adfixit. Tum spolia caputque abscisum spiculo gerens ... hostes fudit,Liv. 4, 19, 5; 5, 21, 1; 1, 26, 9; 1, 18, 10; 1, 20, 1; 1, 22, 6; 1, 28, 4; 1, 28, 9; 2, 24, 4; “3, 8, 11, etc.: tum Caesar cum exercitu Thessaliam petit,Vell. 2, 52, 1; Val. Max. 5, 1, 3; Curt. 4, 3, 7; Tac. A. 3, 28; 11, 35; id. H. 4, 84; Ov. M. 2, 122; 4, 80; 7, 121; 10, 481; 14, 386; Flor. 1, 13, 12; Gell. 1, 19, 5; 1, 23, 5.—
(γ). Implying a connection between two events, hence, under these circumstances, accordingly, thereupon: “at pater omnipotens irā tum percitus acri ... Phaëthonta ... Deturbavit in terram,Lucr. 5, 399: “madefactum iri Graeciam sanguine ... tum neque te ipsum non esse commotum, Marcumque Varronem et M. Catonem ... vehementer esse perterritos,Cic. Div. 1, 32, 68; cf. id. ib. 1, 34, 76; Caes. B. G. 4, 25; cf. id. ib. 5, 49; 5, 51; “7, 59: quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis, nec cum finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit,Liv. 1, 9, 2; 3, 26, 1; 3, 31, 7; 4, 45, 7.—
2. Enumeration of a series of events; the co-ordinate clauses introduced by tum ... tum, or primum (primo) ... deinde ... tum, etc.
(α). Succession of time proper: “ducem Hannibali unum e concilio datum (a Jove), tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret, illum autem respexisse, tum visam beluam vastam, etc.,Cic. Div. 1, 24, 49; 1, 27, 57; 2, 28, 58 sq.: “primo ... deinde ... tum ... tum,id. Fin. 1, 16, 50; 5, 23, 65; id. Tusc. 5, 2, 5: “primum ... deinde ... tum ... postremo,id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; 3, 3, 6: primum colonos inde Romanos expulit: inde in Latinam viam transgressus, etc., inde Lavinium recepit; tum deinceps Corbionem, Vitelliam; “postremum, etc.,Liv. 2, 39, 4: “primi consules sub jugum missi, tum ut quisque gradu proximus erat, tum deinceps singulae legiones,id. 9, 6, 1: “primo ... deinde ... tum ... tum,id. 21, 22, 8; id. praef. 9; 3, 28, 8: 5, 39, 7; “23, 23, 6: deinde ... deinde ... Tum ... post quas, etc.,Curt. 3, 3, 24: primum ... deinde ... deinde ... tum ... postea, Masur. Gabin. ap. Gell. 5, 13, 5; Gai. Inst. 4, 60.—
(β). So in partic.: tum (also hic, et; “not deinde or postea), to denote the succession of speakers in dialogue: immo duas dabo, inquit adulescens ... Tum senex ille: Si vis, inquit, quattuor sane dato,Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 46 dub.: “tum Piso ... inquit, etc. Tum Quintus ... inquit, etc. Hic ego ... inquam, etc. Tum ille ... inquit, etc. Tum Piso ... inquit, etc. Et ille ridens ... inquit, etc. Tum Piso exorsus est, etc.,Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2 sqq.: “tum Atticus ... inquit, etc. Tum ille ... inquit, etc. Tum Brutus, etc. Tum ille, etc. Tum Atticus, etc. Tum Pomponius ... inquit, etc.,id. Brut. 3, 11 sqq., and through the whole treatise; cf. id. Ac. 1, 2, 4; 1, 3, 9; 1, 4, 13; 1, 12, 43 and 44; 2, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 15 sqq.; id. Rep. 1, 13, 19 sqq.; Liv. 7, 10, 2 sqq.; 23, 12, 8; Tac. Dial. 3; 15; 25; 42; Gell. 3, 1, 11 sqq.; 18, 1, 9 sqq.; Ov. M. 14, 594.—
(γ). Transf., of sequence or succession of thought, passing into mere co-ordination (v. C. 2. β, γ), then ... again ... furthermore: “qui mi in cursu obstiterit, faxo vitae is obstiterit suae. Prius edico ne quis, etc. Tum pistores scrofipasci qui, etc. Tum piscatores .... Tum lanii autem qui, etc.,Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 28; 4, 2, 34; 4, 2, 39: (res familiaris) primum bene parta sit, tum quam plurimis se utilem praebeat, deinde augeatur ratione, diligentia, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 26, 92; id. Ac. 2, 47, 146; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 68 sq.; 5, 40, 117; id. Ac. 2, 10, 30; id. de Or. 1, 42, 190; id. Cat. 4, 3, 5; id. Agr. 1, 2, 5; id. Clu. 2, 6; Liv. 3, 26, 11.—
C. Hence, as co-ordinating conjunction, introducing an additional assertion, or thought.
1. Alone, = praeterea, and then, besides, also, moreover, on the other hand (freq. in ante-class. style and in Cic.; “rare in Livy and post-Aug. prose): argenti aurique advexit multum, lanam purpuramque multam ... tum Babylonica peristromata, etc.,Plaut. Stich. 2, 3, 54; id. Rud. 2, 4, 10; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 71; 4, 8, 17; id. Ps. 3, 2, 78; id. Aul. 1, 2, 6; 1, 3, 16; id. Men. 5, 5, 41; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 1, 3, 15; 4, 2, 3; Ter. And. 1, 5, 27; 1, 2, 21; 2, 3, 7; id. Eun. prol. 4; 5, 6, 15; id. Heaut. 2, 1, 16; Lucr. 4, 680; cf. id. 1, 494; 4, 1152: “magnum ingenium L. Luculli, magnumque optimarum artium studium, tum omnis ab eo percepta doctrina ... caruit omnino rebus urbanis,Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 1; 2, 14, 43; id. Div. 1, 24, 50; 1, 42, 94; id. de Or. 1, 46, 201; id. Off. 1, 6, 19; id. Fin. 1, 6, 21; 2, 16, 53; id. Leg. 1, 5, 17; 1, 9, 26; id. Rab. Post. 14, 40; id. Phil. 13, 12, 26: “alterā ex parte Bellovaci instabant, alteram Camulogenus tenebat: tum legiones a praesidio interclusas maximum flumen distinebat,Caes. B. G. 7, 59; id. B. C. 3, 49: naves convenerunt duae Punicae quinqueremes; “duae ab Heracleā triremes ... tum quinque Rhodiae quadriremes,Liv. 42, 56, 6; 1, 40, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 3, 4; Just. 5, 10, 3.—Sometimes connecting two terms of the same clause, with the force of cum ... tum (v. infra, 3. d.): “quot me censes homines jam deverberasse, hospites tum civis?Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 14: “faciendum est igitur nobis ut ... veteranorum, tum legionis Martiae quartaeque consensus ... confirmetur,Cic. Phil. 3, 3, 7; Liv. 28, 43, 1 (in co-ordination often with etiam, autem, and sometimes with praeterea and porro; v. III. infra).—
2. Tum as correlative of a preceding tum.
(α). With an added assertion or thought: ita est haec hominum natio: voluptarii atque potatores, Tum sycophantae ... plurimi In urbe habitant; “tum meretrices mulieres Nusquam perhibentur blandiores gentium,Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 28; id. Mil. 3, 1, 100; 3, 1, 102.—
(β). Tum ... tum = nunc ... nunc (modo ... modo), sometimes ... sometimes, now ... now, at one time ... at another (freq. in Cic., not in Cæs., rare in Liv., and very rare in postAug. writers): “tum huc, tum illuc inretitos impedit piscis,Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 17: “tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur,Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 134: “mihi ... tum hoc tum illud probabilius videtur,id. Off. 3, 7, 33; so id. Am. 4, 13; id. Sen. 13, 45; id. Top. 7, 31; id. N. D. 2, 19, 49: “(alvus) tum restringitur, tum relaxatur,id. ib. 2, 54, 136; id. Rep. 3, 13 (14), 23; id. Leg. 2, 7, 16; id. Or. 63, 212; id. Sen. 3, 7; id. Inv. 1, 37, 66: “dictator tum appellare tum adhortari milites,Liv. 8, 39, 4; Suet. Ner. 1; Gell. 1, 11, 15.—Tum may be repeated several times: “plerique propter voluptatem tum in morbos graves, tum in damna, tum in dedecora incurrunt,Cic. Fin. 1, 14, 47; 3, 7, 26; “so three times,id. N. D. 1, 12, 29; 1, 14, 37; 1, 15, 39; id. Inv. 1, 52, 98; id. Or. 3, 45, 177; id. Off. 1, 7, 22; id. Leg. 2, 17, 43; id. Top. 25, 96; “four times,id. N. D. 1, 43, 120; 2, 20, 52; 2, 39, 101; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 34, § 75; “five times,id. N. D. 2, 5, 14; id. Inv. 1, 13, 17; 1, 41, 76; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 36, § 94; “six times,id. ib. 1, 53, 120; “seven times,Quint. 9, 4, 133; “nine times,Cic. N. D. 2, 50, 51.—And in chronological order (to be distinguished from the instances B. 2. α and γ): “Atheniensium (rem publicam constituerunt) tum Theseus, tum Draco, tum Solo, tum Clisthenes, tum multi alii,at different times, successively, Cic. Rep. 2, 1, 2.—
(γ). Preceded or followed by other co-ordinate words (alias, modo, aliquando, aut ... aut, nunc ... nunc): “ex quo intellegitur qualis ille sit quem tum moderatum, alias modestum, tum temperantem, alias constantem continentemque dicimus,Cic. Tusc. 4, 16, 36: “tum ... tum ... aliquando,id. Div. 2, 2, 6: “tum ... tum ... aut ... aut,id. Or. 61, 204: “modo ... tum autem,id. N. D. 2, 40, 142: “nunc ... nunc ... tum ... tum,Flor. 1, 17, 5.—
(δ). Tum ... tum = et ... et, both ... and, not only ... but also, partly ... partly, without regard to time, the second term being frequently strengthened by etiam (mostly post-Aug.): “Milo Compsam oppugnans, ictusque lapide tum Clodio, tum patriae, quam armis petebat, poenas dedit,Vell. 2, 68, 3: “Muciam et Fulviam, tum a patre, tum a viro utramque inclitam,Val. Max. 9, 1, 8: “Caesar Pompejo tum proprias, tum etiam filiae lacrimas reddidit,id. 5, 1, 10; Quint. 7, 3, 18; Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 28; id. Clem. 1, 19, 2; Front. Aquaed. 1; Tac. A. 12, 33; Suet. Tit. 3; Nep. praef. 8; “and with etiam,Val. Max. 2, 2, 8; 5, 9, 1; 7, 6 prooem.; Nep. Them. 2, 3.—
3. As correlative with a preceding cum, introducing particular after a universal or a stronger or more important assertion after a weaker or less important.
b. Clauses with the same predicate, which is placed after the first clause (always with indic.): “nam mihi, cum multa eximie divineque videntur Athenae tuae peperisse, tum nihil melius illis mysteriis quibus, etc.,Cic. Leg. 2, 14, 36; id. Tusc. 4, 18, 42; id. Phil. 2, 5, 12; Liv. 4, 46, 10; 6, 38, 10.—
c. Clauses with a common predicate placed before both co-ordinate terms, cum ... tum = not only, but also; as ... so especially: “visa est Arcesilae cum vera sententia, tum honesta et digna sapiente,Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 77; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; 2, 35, 119; 3, 1, 3: “movit patres conscriptos cum causa tum auctor,Liv. 9, 10, 1; 4, 57, 2; Suet. Ner. 46 init.
e. Tum, in this construction, is freq. strengthened,
(δ). By inprimis, chiefly, principally: “cum multa non probo, tum illud inprimis quod, etc.,Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 18; id. Fam. 12, 22, 3.—(ε) By cumprimis, chiefly, principally: quapropter bene cum superis de rebus habenda Nobis est ratio ... tum cumprimis Unde anima atque animi constet natura videndum, Lucr. 1, 131.—(ζ) By certe, especially, at least, assuredly: “at cum de plurimis eadem dicit, tum certe de maximis,Cic. Fin. 4, 5, 13; id. Fam. 7, 4; cf. Quint. 2, 1, 10.—(η) By nimirum, assuredly, undoubtedly: “cum plurimas ... commoditates amicitia contineat, tum illa nimirum praestat omnibus quod, etc.,Cic. Am. 7, 23. —(θ) By etiam, besides, as well: “cum omnes omnibus ex terris homines improbos audacesque collegerat, tum etiam multos fortes viros et bonos ... tenebat,Cic. Cael. 6, 14; id. Ac. 2, 10, 31; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2: “quos tu cum memoriter, tum etiam erga nos amice et benevole collegisti,id. Fin. 1, 10, 34; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 23, § 56: “cum suā virtute, tum etiam alienis vitiis,id. Leg. 23, 67; id. Fin. 2, 12, 38; id. N. D. 2, 37, 95; id. de Or. 3, 60, 225; Liv. 1, 21, 2; 7, 23, 6; 7, 32, 10; Val. Max. 7, 2, 3; 3, 2, 10; 9, 6, 3; Quint. 9, 1, 20; 9, 4, 143.—(ι) By quoque, also, besides, as well: “cum potestas major, tum vir quoque potestati par hostes trans Anienem submovere,Liv. 4, 17, 11; 1, 22, 2; cf. Quint. 12, 10, 72.—(κ) By et, also, besides, too: “cujus mortem cum luctus civitatis, tum et dictaturae undecim insignem fecere,Just. 19, 1, 7.—(λ) By praeterea, moreover, besides: “dicimus C. Verrem cum multa libidinose fecerit, tum praeterea quadringentiens sestertium ex Siciliā abstulisse,Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56.
II. Tum as correlative of dependent clauses (freq. in ante - class. writings and Cic., rare in post-Aug. writings).
A. With temporal clauses, introduced by cum, = at the time when, at a time when.
1. Referring to definite past time.
b. Tum, introducing the apodosis of the temporal clause (generally not transl. in Engl.).
(α). Of coincident events, cum ... tum = while: quom genui tum morituros scivi, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 58, 132 (Trag. Rel. v. 361 Vahl.); Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 18: “cum minime videbamur, tum maxime philosophabamur,Cic. N. D. 1, 3, 6; id. Agr. 2, 11, 26; id. Cael. 26, 63; id. Phil. 3, 5, 13: “cum pavida mulier nullam opem videret, tum Tarquinius fateri amorem, orare, etc.,Liv. 1, 58, 3; 5, 11, 4. —
2. Referring to definite present time: “quem esse negas, eundem esse dicis. Cum enim miserum esse dicis, tum eum qui non sit, dicis esse,Cic. Tusc. 1, 6, 12.—
3. Referring to indefinite time.
a. As antecedent of the clause, = at the time when, at a time when, whenever: hominum inmortalis est infamia; “etiam tum vivit quom esse credas mortuam,Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28; id. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7; Cato, R. R. 31: “nec sibi enim quisquam tum se vitamque requirit Cum pariter mens et corpus sopita quiescunt,Lucr. 3, 919; 4, 444; 4, 455; “4, 1166: omnis praedictio mali tum probatur cum ad praedictionem cautio adjungitur,Cic. Div. 2, 25, 54; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104; id. N. D. 2, 3, 9: tum cum sine pondere suci Mobilibus ventis arida facta volant, Ov. H. 5, 109; Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 44; 2, 27, 88; id. Fin. 4, 8, 20; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 20; 5, 26, 73; id. N. D. 1, 4, 9; id. Off. 1, 27, 93.—Tum maxime ... cum plurimum = eo magis quo magis: “eam (partem animi) tum maxime vigere cum plurimum absit a corpore,Cic. Div. 1, 32, 70; so, cum maxime ... tum maxime; v. b. α foll.—
b. Tum introducing the apodosis.
(α). As coincident: “quom amamus, tum perimus,Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 94: “ulmus, cum folia cadunt, tum iterum tempestiva est,Cato, R. R. 17; so id. ib. 155 (156): “cum ea quae quasi involuta fuerunt, aperti sunt, tum inventa dicuntur,Cic. Ac. 2, 8, 26; id. Fin. 5, 10, 29; 1, 17, 57; id. N. D. 2, 52, 129; 1, 19, 49; id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 15.—Cum maxime ... tum maxime = quo magis eo magis: “nam quom pugnabant maxume, ego tum fugiebam maxume,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 45: “quamobrem omnes, cum secundae res sunt maxume, tum maxume Meditari secum oportet, etc.,Cic. Tusc. 3, 14, 30 poet.
4. Referring to future time.
(β). Tum introducing the apodosis: “quom videbis, tum scies,Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; 4, 6, 30: “de quo cum perpauca dixero, tum ad jus civile veniam,Cic. Leg. 1, 12, 34; id. Clu. 2, 6; 4, 9; Liv. 3, 56, 10.—
B. With temporal clause, introduced by ubi.
1. Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare): “vitem novellam resecare tum erit tempus ubi valebit,Cato, R. R. 33: “tum tu igitur demum id adulescenti aurum dabis, ubi erit locata virgo in matrimonium?Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 52.—
2. Tum introducing the apodosis.
(β). Referring to indefinite time: “post ubi tempust promissa jam perfici, Tum coacti necessario se aperiunt,Ter. And. 4, 1, 8: Cato, R. R. 3 init.; 17: “ubi jam morbi se flexit causa ... Tum quasi vaccillans primum consurgit,Lucr. 3, 503; 6, 129; 6, 526.—
C. With a temporal clause introduced by postquam.
1. Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare): “Flaminius qui ne quieto quidem hoste ipse quieturus erat, tum vero postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, etc.,Liv. 22, 3, 7; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 (v. infra, III. A. 2. a. β).—
2. Tum introducing the apodosis (always = deinde).
(β). Referring to indefinite time: postquam vero commoditas quaedam ... dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum ingenio freta malitiā pervertere urbes adsuevit, Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 3.—
D. With a temporal clause introduced by ut.
1. Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare): “tum vero ingentem gemitum dat Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici ... conspexit,Verg. A. 1, 485; cf. id. ib. 12, 218.—
2. Tum introducing the apodosis.
E. With a temporal clause introduced by quando.
1. Tum as antecedent of the clause.
2. Tum introducing the apodosis.
F. In the apodosis after simul ac: “an simul ac nubes successere, ipse in eas tum Descendit (Juppiter), prope ut hinc teli determinet ictus?Lucr. 6, 402.—
G. With a temporal clause introduced by dum.
2. Tum introducing the apodosis: “dum habeat, tum amet,Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 23: “dum se glomerant ... tum pondere turris Procubuit,Verg. A. 9, 540.—
L. After relative clauses denoting time: quā tempestate Paris Helenam innuptis junxit nuptiis, Ego tum gravida expletis jam fere ad pariendum mensibus, Poët. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 58, 219 (Trag. Rel. p. 246 Rib.).—
M. With conditional clauses.
1. With a conditional clause introduced by si, sin, ni (not nisi).
2. With a condition contrary to fact.
N. After an abl. absol.
1. With perfect participles (= postquam or cum ... tum), mostly with denique, vero, demum.
(γ). Referring to future time (the abl. absol. = a fut. perf.): “ita prope XL. diebus interpositis tum denique se responsuros esse arbitrantur,Cic. Verr. 1, 10, 31; 1, 18, 54; id. Fin. 4, 13, 32; id. Scaur. Fragm. 10, 22.—
2. With pres. participles (post-class.): “tacentibus cunctis, tum ipse (dixit), etc.,Just. 12, 15, 6.
III. Particular connections.
A. With other particles of time.
2. Tum demum and tum denique, then only, then at length, then at last, not till then, i. e. later than might be expected, implying delayed action.
a. Tum demum.
(β). In partic., referring to clauses introduced by cum, ubi, si, or abl. absol. (v. II. A. B. L. M.), denoting absolute restriction to the terms of the clause: “imo etiam ubi expolivero, magis hoc tum demum dices,Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 60: “tum demum mihi procax Academia videbitur si aut consenserint omnes, aut, etc.,Cic. N. D. 1, 6, 13: “cum is Casilini eo die mansurum dixisset, tum demum cognitus est error,Liv. 22, 13, 8; Vell. 2, 115, 4; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 fin.; 7, 2, 4; Curt. 3, 11, 6; Plin. Ep. 8, 20, 7.—
(γ). Sometimes = nunc demum (anteclass.): victus es, Chaline. St. Tum nos demum vivere. Olympio. Gaudeo, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 65.—
b. Tum denique.
(α). In gen.: “tum denique tauros in gregem redigo,Varr. R. R. 2, 5: “injectā glaebā tumulus is (locus) ubi humatus est vocatur, ac tum denique multa religiosa jura complectitur,Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 57; id. Fin. 3, 22, 76; id. Tusc. 3, 26, 61: nequiquam temptati ut tum denique desisterent impediendo bello, Liv. 4, 55, 5; Ov. M. 4, 519; 7, 857; 10, 664.—
4. With deinde, hic, postea, with consecutive force emphatic.
a. Deinde tum (very rare): “primum ea quae sumus acturi cogitare debemus, deinde tum dicere ac facere,Varr. L. L. 6, 6, 62.—
b. Tum deinde.
(β). = an emphatic deinde: nam praetermisit quod in primā parte sumere debuit; “tum deinde eodem ipso quod omiserat quasi proposito ad confirmandum aliud utitur,Gell. 2, 8, 3; 13, 24 (23), 1; Just. 2, 1, 19.—
d. Tum postea: “tum postea complorantibus nostris, dies quidem tandem inluxit,Gell. 19, 1, 3; so id. 14, 3, 10 (for quid tum postea, v. D. 1.).—
B. With particles of emphasis.
1. Tum vero (sometimes tum enimvero or enimvero tum), then indeed, at that crisis, then if not before, etc., or merely = emphatic then, denoting either coincidence or sequence of action.
(β). As correlative of temporal or conditional clauses, and after abl. absol.: “quod ubi Romam est nuntiatum, senatui metum injecit ne tum vero sustineri nec in urbe seditio, nec in castris posset,Liv. 5, 7, 4; Sall. J. 94, 3: “tum vero ... si,Cic. Fin. 1, 19, 63; Liv. 6, 14, 4 (v. II. M. 1. α, β).—With cum, Liv. 32, 12, 1: “quae postquam frustra temptata rogumque parari ... vidit, Tum vero gemitus ... Edidit,Ov. M. 2, 621; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40; v. C. 1. b. (so, tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; v. II. D. 2. and M. 1.).—
2. Tum quidem, at that time, thereupon, then at least (usu. opposed to a later time): dixit sibi in somnis visum esse, etc. Et tum quidem incolumis exercitum liberavit; post triennium autem devovit se, etc., Cic. Div. 1, 24, 51; so, “actum quidem,id. Fl. 25, 59; id. Lael. 11, 39: “et tum quidem ab Dio Perseus in interiora regni recepit se ... post dies paucos, etc.,Liv. 42, 39, 1; 1, 57, 10; 3, 2, 10; “7, 17, 3.—Often in resuming the narrative after a digression: ac tum quidem regem ... filium appellat,Curt. 4, 7, 25.—Merely emphatic: “Duillio Cornelioque coss. etiam mari congredi ausus est. Tum quidem ipsa velocitas classis comparatae victoriae auspicium fuit,Flor. 1, 18 (2, 2), 7; so id. 1, 22 (2, 6), 20; 1, 40 (3, 5), 12.—With cum, Tac. Dial. 11.—
4. Tum maxime (sometimes tum cummaxime).
(α). Especially at that time, chiefly then: illi συμπόσια, nos convivia quod tum maxime simul vivitur, Cic. Fam. 9, 24, 35; id. Leg. 2, 11, 26.—With cum: “quae quidem vis tum maxime cognita est cum ... M. Cato, legem suadens, in Galbam multa dixit,Cic. Brut. 23, 89; id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Par. 4, 1, 29.—
(γ). Strengthening the co-ordinate tum after cum, so especially; v. I. C. 3. e. β (for cum maxime ... tum maxime and tum maxime ... cum plurimum, v. II. A. 3. a. b.).—
5. Tum potissimum = tum maxime, just then (rare): “C. Caesar ... tum potissimum acie commissa impeditos religione hostes vicit,Front. Strat. 2, 1, 16.—
6. Etiam tum.
7. Tum etiam.
(α). Followed by si or cum, even if, even when: “atque equidem filium Tum etiam si nolit, cogam,Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 65: “qui tum etiam cum ... circumfusi erant caligine,Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 45.—
8. Tum quoque.
(α). Also then, then likewise, then as before, then as on another occasion mentioned before: ceu lapidem si Percutiat lapis aut ferrum; “nam tum quoque lumen Exsilit,Lucr. 6, 162: “tum quoque homini plus tribui quam nescio cui necessitati,Cic. Prov. Cons. 11, 28: “tum quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis,Liv. 1, 33, 5; 2, 52, 2; 21, 22, 4; Caes. B. C. 3, 37; Ov. M. 14, 369.—
(β). Even then, = etiam tum (rare): “et tamen tum quoque se absentes triumphare credunt,Liv. 45, 38, 13; 39, 41, 3; 39, 47, 11; Ov. H. 17 (18), 190.—
(γ). In orat. obliq. (v. I. A. 2.), even now: “quod si Romani tum quoque aequa aspernarentur,Liv. 42, 62, 7. —
(δ). = sic quoque, even under the circumstances, even as it was, etc. (v. sic, V. 3.): ut si effugium patuisset in publicum, impleturae urbem tumultu fuerint. Tum quoque aliquotiens integro corpore evaserunt, Liv. 24, 26, 13; 40, 16, 6; 43, 4, 1; “9, 13, 9: tum quoque, amputatā dextrā, navem sinistrā comprehendit,Just. 2, 9, 18.—
C. Tum with co-ordinating particles.
1. Tum autem.
(α). = praeterea, and then, besides (v. I. C. 1.): turpilucricupidum te vocant cives tui; “tum autem sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64: “oves scabrae sunt ... Tum autem Surorum nemo exstat qui ibi sex menses vixerit,id. ib. 2, 4, 141; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 4, 2, 3; id. Poen. 5, 5, 34; 5, 7, 22; Ter. And. 1, 5, 34; id. Eun. 5, 9, 7; id. Hec. 2, 1, 14; 3, 2, 10: “tum autem qui non ipso honesto movemur ... callidi sumus, non boni,Cic. Leg. 1, 14, 41; id. Or. 1, 58, 247; 2, 19, 80.—
(γ). = eo tempore, with autem as connective: “tum illic autem Lemnius ... uxorem duxit, etc.,Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 25: “tum autem ex omnibus montibus nives proluit,Caes. B. C. 1, 48.—
(δ). But in this instance: “uxori emunda ancilla'st: tum autem pluscula Supellectile opus est,Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 60; 5, 7, 25 sq.—
2. For tum etiam, v. B. 7. β.—
D. Quid tum?
1. In dialogue, what then? what next? what further? novi ego hos pugnos meos. Ca. Quid tum? Th. Quid tum? Rogitas? Hisce ego, si tu me inritaveris, placidum te hodie reddam, Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 49; so id. As. 2, 2, 83; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 47; 3, 5, 66; id. Phorm. 3, 3, 8.—And strengthened: “quid tum postea?Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; id. As. 2, 2, 68; 2, 2, 79; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 78; 4, 2, 9; 4, 7, 23; id. Ad. 4, 5, 15; id. Hec. 4, 1, 36: videsne abundare me otio? A. Quid tum? Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 26.—
3. As emphatic co-ordinative in quoting the different items of a document, law, etc.: quive in senatu sententiam dixit, dixerit. Quid tum? Qui eorum coiit, coierit, etc., what next? i. e. and then, listen! Cic. Clu. 54, 148; so id. Agr. 1, 5, 16; 3, 3, 11; id. Mur. 12, 26; id. Fl. 23, 55.—
E. Tum temporis = eo tempore (post class. and rare; cf.: “tunc temporis): posterā die civitas principem suum, ac tum temporis consulem in foro expectabat,Just. 31, 2, 6.
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