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tempestas , ātis (collat. form tempe-stūs , ūtis;
I.v. in the foll.; gen. plur. tempestatium, Vitr. 9, 6, 3), f. tempus.
I. A portion, point, or space of time, a time, season, period, ὥρα (so mostly ante-class. and poet.; syn. tempus): SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10; cf.: “in duodecim tabulis: SOLIS OCCASV DIEI SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO: libri augurum pro tempestate tempestutem dicunt, supremum augurii tempus,Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Müll. N. cr.: jam quā tempestate vivo certe sine ad me recipio, Lucil. ap. Non. 407, 31: “ tempestate flos poëtarum fuit,Plaut. Cas. prol. 18: “verum tempestas quondam cum vixi fuit, Quom, etc.,id. Truc. 2, 4, 29: “eādemque tempestate multis signis Lacedaemoniis calamitas denuntiabatur,Cic. Div. 1, 34, 75: “quā tempestate juvencos egerat a stabulis,Prop. 4, 9, 1: “non ego pro mundi regno magis anxius illā Tempestate fui, qua, etc.,Ov. M. 1, 183: tertia te Phthiae tempestas laeta locabit, the third day (a translation of the Homeric ἤματί κεν τριτάτῳ, Il. 9, 363), Cic. poët. Div. 1, 25, 52: “quā tempestate Poenus in Italiam venit,Cic. de Or. 3, 38, 153; cf. id. Or. 49, 164: “fuere item tempestate, qui crederent, etc.,Sall. C. 17, 7; Curt. 4, 2, 11; 6, 2, 15: “illā tempestate,Liv. 27, 37, 13; Curt. 3, 1, 2: “hac tempestate,Sall. J. 3, 1; 13, 7; Vell. 2, 78; Just. 19, 2, 3; 25, 2, 8: sic omnia nimia, cum vel in tempestate vel in agris vel in corporibus laetiora fuerunt, in contraria fere convertuntur (a transl. of the Platonic ἐν ὥραις τε καὶ ἐν φυτοῖς καὶ ἐν σώμασι), Cic. Rep. 1, 44, 68.— In plur.: quam te post multis tueor tempestatibus, Pac. ap. Non. 407, 33: “cis paucas tempestates, augebis, etc.,Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 18: “multis tempestatibus haud sane quisquam Romae virtute magnus fuit,Sall. C. 53, 5: “Sulla sollertissimus omnium in paucis tempestatibus factus est,id. J. 96, 1: “Evander, qui multis ante tempestatibus ea tenuerat loca,Liv. 1, 5, 2.—
II. Time, with respect to its physical qualities, weather (the predom. and class. signif. of the word).
A. Lit., of good as well as of bad weather: tum tonuit laevum bene tempestate serenā, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 2, 39, 82 (Ann. v. 517 Vahl.; cf. infra, in plur.); Varr. ap. Non. 408, 5: “liquida,Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 64; cf.: “liquidissima caeli,Lucr. 4, 169: “nactus idoneam ad navigandum tempestatem,Caes. B. G. 4, 23; cf. Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4: “secunda,Tac. Agr. 38: “fuit pridie Quinquatrus egregia tempestas,Cic. Att. 9, 13, 2: “tempestatem praetermittere,id. Fam. 14, 4, 5: “cum tempestas arridet,Lucr. 2, 32; cf. id. 5, 1395: “unde haec tam clara repente Tempestas?Verg. A. 9, 20.—In plur.: tempestates serenae riserunt risu Jovis, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 254 (Ann. v. 445 Vahl.): “dum tempestates assunt,Lucr. 1, 178: “et comites et tempestates et navem idoneam ut habeas, diligenter videbis,Cic. Fam. 16, 1, 2; Cels. 2, 1.—
2. Esp., of bad or stormy weather, a storm, tempest (cf.: “procella, hiemps): turbida tempestas heri fuit,Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 3; so, “turbida,Lucr. 6, 376; Caes. B. C. 2, 22: “saeva,Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 12; Lucr. 6, 458: “perfrigida,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86: “turbulenta,id. ib. 2, 5, 10, § “26: foeda,Liv. 2, 62; Verg. G. 1, 323: “horrida,Hor. Epod. 13, 1: “demissa ab Euro,id. C. 3, 17, 11: “tempestas venit, Confringit tegulas imbricesque,Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 27: “tanta tempestas cooritur, ut, etc.,Caes. B. C. 1, 48: “tempestas naves adflixit,id. ib. 3, 27: “vis tempestatis,Cic. Rep. 4, 8, 8: “maximo imbri, tempestate, ventis, procellis, etc.,id. Phil. 5, 6, 15: “nautae cum adversā tempestate in alto jactarentur,id. Inv. 2, 31, 95: “si segetibus tempestas nocuerit,id. N. D. 2, 66, 167: “si tempestas a vertice silvis Incubuit,Verg. G. 2, 310: “tempestas sine more furit,id. A. 5, 694.—In plur.: “duo genera esse caelestis injuriae meminisse debemus: unum quod tempestates vocamus, in quibus grandines, procellae, ceteraque similia intelleguntur, etc.,Plin. 18, 28, 69, § 278: “magnis commotis tempestatibus, fluvius ita magnus factus est, ut, etc.,Cic. Inv. 2, 31, 96; Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 86: “etiam summi gubernatores in magnis tempestatibus a vectoribus admoneri solent,Cic. Phil. 7, 9, 27: “ut tempestates saepe certo aliquo caeli signo commoventur,id. Mur. 17, 36: “procellae, tempestates,id. Off. 2, 6, 19; Varr. R. R. 3, 10, 3: “autumni,Verg. G. 1, 311; Caes. B. G. 4, 34. —
3. Personified: Tempestātes , the weather-goddesses, the weather: (Lucius Scipio) CEPIT. CORSICA. ALERIAQVE. VRBE. DEDET TEMPESTATIBVS AIDE MERITO, Inscrr. Scip. in Inscr. Orell. 552; Cic. N. D. 3, 20, 51; Hor. Epod. 10, 24; cf. in sing. Tempestas, Ov. F 6, 193. —
2. A storm, shower, i. e. a throng, multitude, etc.: “querelarum,Cic. Pis. 36, 89: “turbida telorum,Verg. A. 12, 284; Claud. in Ruf. 1, 102.
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