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umbra , ae, f. etym. dub.; Curt. compares Sanscr. ambara, an encircling,
I.a shade, shadow.
B. Transf.
1. In painting, the dark part of a painting, shade, shadow: “quam multa vident pictores in umbris et in eminentiā, quae nos non videmus!Cic. Ac. 2, 7, 20; so (opp. lumen) Plin. 35, 5, 11, § 29; 35, 11, 40, § 131; 33, 3, 57, § 163.—
2. A shade, ghost of a dead person (poet. and in post-Aug. prose; cf.: “Manes, Lemures): nos ubi decidimus, Quo dives Tullus et Ancus, Pulvis et umbra sumus,Hor. C. 4, 7, 16: “ne forte animas Acherunte reamur Effugere aut umbras inter vivos volitare,Lucr. 4, 38; cf.: “cornea (porta), quā veris facilis datur exitus umbris,Verg. A. 6, 894; Tib. 3, 2, 9; Verg. A. 5, 734; Hor. C. 2, 13, 30; id. S. 1, 8, 41; Plin. 30, 2, 6, § 18; Suet. Calig. 59 al.: “Umbrarum rex,” i. e. Pluto, Ov. M. 7, 249; so, “dominus,id. ib. 10, 16.— In the plur. umbrae, of a single dead person: “matris agitabitur umbris,Ov. M. 9, 410; 8, 476; 6, 541; Verg. A. 6, 510; 10, 519 al.
3. Like the Greek σκιά, an uninvited guest, whom an invited one brings with him (cf. parasitus), Hor. S. 2, 8, 22; id. Ep. 1, 5, 28; Plaut. Pers. 2, 4, 27; so, of an attendant: “luxuriae,Cic. Mur. 6, 13.—
4. A shade, shady place, that which gives a shade or shadow (as a tree, house, tent, etc; poet.); “of trees: nudus Arboris Othrys erat nec habebat Pelion umbras,Ov. M. 12, 513; so id. ib. 10, 88; 10, 90; 14, 447; Verg. G. 1, 157, id. E. 9, 20; 5, 5; Sil. 4, 681: “Pompeiā spatiabere cultus in umbrā,” i. e. in the Pompeian portico, Prop. 4 (5), 8, 75. so, “Pompeia,Ov. A. A. 1, 67; 3, 387: “vacuā tonsoris in umbrā,in the cool barber's shop, Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 50: “studia in umbrā educata,in the closet, study, Tac. A. 14, 53; cf.: “rhetorica,” i. e. the rhetorician's school, Juv. 7, 173: “dum roseis venit umbra genis,” i. e. down, beard, Stat. Th. 4, 336; cf.: dubia lanuginis, Claud. Nupt. Pall. et Celer. 42: nunc umbra nudata sua jam tempora moerent, i. e. of hair, Petr. poët. 109: summae cassidis umbra, i. e. the plume or crest, Stat. Th. 6, 226: “sed non erat illi Arcus et ex umeris nullae fulgentibus umbrae,” i. e. quivers, id. S. 3, 4, 30.—
5. A fish, called also sciaena; a grayling, umber: Salmo thymallus, Linn.; Enn. ap. App. Mag. p. 299 (Heduph. v. 7 Vahl.); Varr. L. L. 5, § 77 Müll.; Ov. Hal. 111; Col. 8, 16, 8; Aus. Idyll. 10, 90.—
II. Trop., like the Engl. shadow or shade.
A. Opp. to substance or reality, a trace, obscure sign or image, faint appearance, imperfect copy or representation, semblance, pretence (cf. simulacrum): “veri juris germanaeque justitiae solidam et expressam effigiem nullam tenemus, umbrā et imaginibus utimur,Cic. Off. 3, 17, 69: “umbra et imago civitatis,id. Rep. 2, 30, 53: “umbra et imago equitis Romani,id. Rab. Post. 15, 41: o hominem amentem et miserum, qui ne umbram quidem umquam τοῦ καλοῦ viderit! id. Att. 7, 11, 1: “in quo ipsam luxuriam reperire non potes, in eo te umbram luxuriae reperturum putas?id. Mur. 6, 13: in comoediā maxime claudicamus ... vix levem consequimur umbram, Quint. 10, 1, 100: “sub umbrā foederis aequi servitutem pati,Liv. 8, 4, 2: “umbras falsae gloriae consectari,Cic. Pis. 24, 57: “umbra es amantum magis quam amator,Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 31: “mendax pietatis umbra,Ov. M. 9, 459: “libertatis,Luc. 3, 146: “belli,Sil. 15, 316: “umbras quasdam veritatis habere,Plin. 30, 2, 6, § 17; Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 273.—
C. Rest, leisure: “ignavā Veneris cessamus in umbrā,Ov. Am. 2, 18, 3; Albin. Ob. Maec. 98.
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