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vĭcis (as a
I.gen.; the nom. does not occur), vicem, vice; in plur., vices (nom. and acc.) and vicibus (dat. and abl.), f. cf. Gr. εἴκω, to yield; root ϝικ-; v. Georg Curtius Gr. Etym. p. 135, change, interchange, alternation, alternate or reciprocal succession, vicissitude (the gen. not ante-Aug.; the other cases class.).
I. Lit.
A. In gen. (mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose; for which, in class. prose, vicissitudo).
(α). Sing.: ignotus juvenum coetus alternā vice Inibat alacris, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 214 P. (Trag. v. 151 Vahl.): “hac vice sermonum,conversation, Verg. A. 6, 535: “vice sermonis,Ov. Tr. 4, 4, 79; cf. in the foll. β: “deus haec fortasse benigna Reducet in sedem vice,Hor. Epod. 13, 8: “solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni,id. C. 1, 4, 1: “commoti Patres vice fortunarum humanarum,Liv. 7, 31, 6: dum Nox vicem peragit, performs the exchange, i. e. alternales with day, Ov. M. 4, 218: “ridica contingens vitem mutuā vice sustinetur et sustinet,Col. 4, 16: “versā vice,reversely, Dig. 43, 29, 3; App. Dogm. Plat. p. 32, 6; id. Flor. p. 363; Just. 6, 5, 11 al.
2. Adverb.: in vicem (also freq. one word, invĭcem ; and less freq. vicem, in vices, or per vices), by turns, alternately, one after the other, mutually, reciprocally.
c. In vices (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): “inque vices illum tectos qui laesit amores, Laedit amore pari,Ov. M. 4, 191; 12, 161; Tac. G. 26 Halm.—
d. Per vices (post-Aug. and very rare): “quod ipsum imperari per vices optimum est,Quint. 2, 4, 6 Halm.—
B. In partic.
1. A time, turn (late Lat.; cf. Orell. ad Hor. C. 4, 14, 13): “ager tertiā vice arabitur,Pall. 10, 1: “tribus per diem vicibus,id. 1, 3 fin.; cf.: “tesserulas in medium vice suā quisque jaciebamus,Gell. 18, 13, 1: “vice quādam,once, Sid. Ep. 7, 1; Aus. Pan. Grat. Aug. 4.—
2. Reciprocal behavior or conduct, i. e. return, requital, reciprocal service, recompense, remuneration, retaliation (rare but class.): “recito praedicationem amplissimi beneficii, vicem officii praesentis,Cic. Sest. 4, 10: “tanto proclivius est injuriae quam beneficio vicem exsolvere,Tac. H. 4, 3; Prop. 1, 13, 10: “redde vicem meritis,Ov. Am. 1, 6, 23: “non poteris ipsa referre vicem,id. A. A. 1, 370; cf.: “dejecit acer plus vice simplici (i. e. non tantam solum cladem illis intulit quantam ipsi dederant, sed duplum, Schol.),Hor. C. 4, 14, 13 Orell. ad loc.—Plur.: “spernentem sperne, sequenti Redde vices,Ov. M. 14, 36: “neque est ullus affectus ... qui magis vices exigat,Plin. Pan. 85, 3.—
II. Transf., the position, place, room, stead, post, office, duty of one person or thing as assumed by another (the usual signif. of the word): “heredum causa justissima est: nulla est enim persona, quae ad vicem ejus, qui e vitā emigrarit, propius accedat,Cic. Leg. 2, 19, 48: “ego succedens in vicem imperii tui,Liv. 38, 48, 7: “ipse in locum vicemque consulis provolat,id. 3, 18, 9: “postquam (Juppiter) te dedit, qui erga omne humanum genus vice suā fungereris,stand in the place of, represent, Plin. Pan. 80, 6: “fungar vice cotis,Hor. A. P. 304: “per speciem alienae fungendae vicis opes suas firmavit,Liv. 1, 41, 6: “ne sacra regiae vicis desererentur,id. 1, 20, 2: “vestramque meamque vicem explete,Tac. A. 4, 8 fin.: “cujus ... ego vicem debeo inplere,Plin. Ep. 6, 6, 6: “(Manus) adverbiorum atque pronominum obtinent vicem,Quint. 11, 3, 87: “in ordine vicis suae,Vulg. Luc. 1, 8.—Plur.: non ad suum pertinere officium rati, quando divisae professionum vices essent, Quint. Inst. prooem. § 4.—
2. Adverb.
a. Vicem, with the gen. or a pers. pron., in the place of, instead of, on account of, for, for the sake of: “eri vicem meamque,Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 11: “qui hodie sese excruciari meam vicem possit pati,id. Most. 2, 1, 8; cf. id. ib. 5, 2, 24: “vos respondetote istinc istarum vicem,id. Rud. 3, 5, 34: “tuam vicem saepe doleo,Cic. Fam. 12, 23, 3: “suam vicem indignantem magistratu abisse,Liv. 2, 31, 11: remittimus hoc tibi, ne nostram vicem irascaris. id. 34, 32, 6: “sollicito consuli ... eorum vicem quos, etc.,id. 44, 3, 5: “rex, vicem eorum quos ad tam manifestum periculum miserat,Curt. 7, 11, 20: “maestus non suam vicem, sed propter, etc.,id. 7, 2, 5: cum Pompeius aedem Victoriae dedicaturus foret, cujus gradus vicem theatri essent, Tiro Tull. ap. Gell. 10, 1, 7: “quoniam res familiaris obsidis vicem esse apud rempublicam videbatur,Gell. 16, 10, 11.—
(β). Sometimes in a more general sense, after the manner of, like: “Sardanapali vicem in suo lectulo mori,Cic. Att. 10, 8, 7: ceteri vicem pecorum obtruncabantur, Sall. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 497, 26; cf. the foll.—
b. Vice, instead of, for, on account of: “in pane salis vice utuntur nitro,Plin. 31, 10, 46, § 115: “temonis vice trahitur,Col. 6, 2, 7: “murum urbi cocto latere circumdedit, harenae vice bitumine interstrato,Just. 1, 2, 7: “exanimes vice unius,Liv. 1, 25, 6: “senatus vice populi,Just. Inst. 1, 2, 5.—
(β). In a more general sense (cf. the preced. numbers), after the manner of, like: “jactari se passa fluctu algae vice,Plin. 9, 45, 68, § 147: “moveri periclitantium vice possumus,Quint. 6, 2, 35: “diebus ac noctibus vice mundi circumagi,Suet. Ner. 31: “quaeque dixerat, oracli vice accipiens,Tac. A. 6, 21 fin.: “ut deorum vice mortuos honorarent,like gods, Lact. 4, 28 fin.: “vice navium,App. de Deo Socr. p. 47, 22: “vice pecudum occidi,Lact. 5, 10, 6: “vice imbellium proculcati,Dict. Cret. 3, 24.—
d. Ad vicem, instead of, for: “ad tegularum et imbricum vicem,Plin. 36, 22, 44, § 159: “ad vicem solis cinis calidus subjectus,Pall. 4, 10 fin.; 3, 28; “very rarely, ad invicem,Veg. Vet. 2, 7 fin.
(β). In a more general sense (cf. in the preced. numbers a. and b.), after the manner of, like: “majores natu a majoribus colebantur ad deum prope ad parentum vicem,Gell. 2, 15, 1.
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