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Ἀναξίμανδρος). A Greek philosopher of Miletus, born B.C. 611, and hence a younger contemporary of Thales and Pherecydes. He lived at the court of Polycrates of Samos, and died B.C. 547. In his philosophy the primal essence, which he was the first to call ἀρχή, was the immortal, imperishable, all-including infinite, a kind of chaos (ἄπειρον), out of which all things proceed, and into which they return. He composed, in the Ionic dialect, a brief and somewhat poetical treatise on his doctrine, which may be regarded as the earliest prose work on philosophy; but only a few sentences out of it are preserved. The advances he had made in physics and astronomy are evidenced by his invention of the sundial, his construction of a celestial globe, and his first attempt at a geographical map. See Ionian School; Philosophia.

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