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The son of Iolaüs, a Macedonian. He was first an officer under Philip, and afterwards was raised to the rank of a general under Alexander the Great. When the latter invaded Asia Antipater was appointed governor of Macedonia, and in this station he served his prince with the greatest fidelity. He reduced the Spartans, who had formed a confederacy against the Macedonians; and, having thus secured the tranquillity of Greece, he marched into Asia with a powerful reinforcement for Alexander. After that monarch's death the government of Macedonia and of the other European provinces was allotted to Antipater. He was soon involved in a severe contest with the Grecian states; was defeated by the Athenians, who came against him with an army of 30,000 men and a fleet of 200 ships; and was closely besieged in Lamia, a town of Thessaly. But Leosthenes, the Athenian commander, having been mortally wounded under the walls of the city, and Antipater having received assistance from Craterus, his son-in-law, the fortune of the war was completely changed. The Athenians were routed at Cranon, and compelled to submit at discretion. They were allowed to retain their rights and privileges, but were obliged to deliver up the orators Demosthenes and Hyperides, who had instigated the war, and to receive a Macedonian garrison into the Munychia. Antipater was equally successful in subduing the other States of Greece, who were making a noble struggle for their freedom; but he settled their respective governments with much moderation. In conjunction with Craterus he was the first who attempted to control the growing power of Perdiccas, and after the death of that commander he was invested with all his authority. He exercised this jurisdiction over the other governors with unusual fidelity, integrity, and impartiality, and died in the eightieth year of his age, B.C. 319. At his death he left his son Cassander in a subordinate station; appointed Polysperchon his own immediate successor, and recommended him to the other generals as the fittest person to preside in their councils. Antipater received a learned education, and was the friend and disciple of Aristotle. He appears to have possessed very eminent abilities, and was peculiarly distinguished for his vigilance and fidelity in every trust. It was a saying of Philip, father of Alexander, “I have slept soundly, for Antipater has been awake” (Justin, xi. 12, 13, etc.; Diod. xvii. 18, etc.).


The Idumaean, was the father of Herod the Great, and second son of Antipas, governor of Idumaea. He embraced the party of Hyrcanus against Aristobulus, and took a very active part in the contest between the two brothers respecting the office of high-priest in Iudaea. Aristobulus at first, however, succeeded; but when Pompey had deposed him and restored Hyrcanus to the pontifical dignity, Antipater soon became the chief director of affairs in Iudaea, ingratiated himself with the Romans, and used every effort to aggrandize his own family. He gave very effectual aid to Caesar in the Alexandrian War, and the latter in return made him a Roman citizen and procurator of Iudaea. In this latter capacity he exerted himself to restore the ancient Jewish form of government, but was cut off by a conspiracy, the brother of the high-priest having been bribed to give him a cup of poisoned wine. Iosephus makes him to have been distinguished for piety, justice, and love of country (Ant. Iud. xiv. 3).


A son of Cassander, ascended the throne of Macedonia B.C. 298. He disputed the crown with his brother, Philip IV., and caused his mother, Thessalonica, to be put to death for favouring Philip's side. The two brothers, however, reigned conjointly, notwithstanding this, for three years, when they were dethroned by Demetrius Poliorcetes. Antipater thereupon retired to the court of Lysimachus, his father-in-law, where he ended his days (Justin, xxvi. 1).


A native of Tarsus, the disciple and successor of Diogenes the Babylonian, in the Stoic School. He flourished about B.C. 144, and is praised by both Cicero and Seneca as an able supporter of that sect. His chief opponent was Carneades (De Off. iii. 12; Plin. Ep. 92).


A native of Cyrené, and one of the Cyrenaic school. He was a disciple of the first Aristippus and the preceptor of Epitimides.


A philosopher of Tyre, who wrote a work on duty. He is supposed to have been of the Stoic school. Cicero ( De Orat. iii. 50) speaks of him as an improvisator. Crassus, into whose mouth the Roman orator puts this remark, might have known the poet when he was quaestor in Macedonia, the same year in which Cicero was born (B.C. 106). Pliny relates (Pliny H. N. vii. 51) that he had every year a fever on the day of his birth, and that, without ever experiencing any other complaint, he attained to a very advanced age. Some of his epigrams remain, the greater part of which fall under the class of epitaphs (ἐπιτύμβια).


A poet of Thessalonica, who flourished towards the end of the last century preceding the Christian era. We have thirty-six of his epigrams remaining.


A native of Hierapolis. He was the secretary of Septimius Severus and praefect of Bithynia. He was the preceptor also of Caracalla and Geta, and reproached the former with the murder of his brother.

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