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λιβανωτίς, λιβανωτρίς). The incense box used in sacrifices; called by Servius arca thuralis.

Horace, enumerating the principal articles necessary in a solemn sacrifice to Iuno, mentions “Flowers and a box full of frankincense.” In Vergil, Aeneas worships “with corn and with frankincense from the full acerra” ( Aen. v. 745).

Pliny, enumerating the principal works of Parrhasius of Ephesus, speaks of a picture representing a priest preparing to sacrifice, with a boy standing beside him, and holding the incense-box and a wreath of flowers. This was, no doubt, a very common and favourite subject for artists of every kind. It frequently occurs in bas-reliefs representing sacrifices, and executed on vases, friezes, and other ancient monuments. It occurs three times on the Columna Traiana at Rome, and once on the Arch of Constantine.

Acerra. (Capitoline Museum.)

The acerra was also, according to Festus, a small altar placed before the dead, on which perfumes were burned: “Acerra, ara quae ante mortuum poni solebat, in qua odores incendebantur.” There was a law in the Twelve Tables which restricted the use of acerrae at funerals (De Leg. ii. 24).

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