). The name of four Persian kings.
, from his right
hand being longer than his left, succeeded his father, Xerxes I., and reigned B.C. 465-425.
He carried on war against the Egyptians, who were assisted in their revolt by the Athenians.
He was succeeded by his son, Xerxes II.
Surnamed Mnemon, from his good memory, succeeded his father,
Darius II., and reigned B.C. 405-359. Respecting the war between him and his brother Cyrus,
. Tissaphernes was appointed satrap of
Western Asia in the place of Cyrus, and was actively engaged in wars with the Greeks.
Artaxerxes had to carry on frequent wars with tributary princes and satraps, who endeavoured
to make themselves independent. Thus he maintained a long struggle against Evagoras of
Cyprus, from 385 to 376; and his attempts to recover Egypt were unsuccessful. Towards the end
of his reign he put to death his eldest son Darius, who had formed a plot to assassinate him.
His last days were still further embittered by the unnatural conduct of his son Ochus, who
caused the destruction of two of his brothers, in order to secure the succession for himself.
Artaxerxes was succeeded by Ochus, who ascended the throne under the name
of Artaxerxes III.
Also called Ochus
, reigned B.C. 359-338. By the aid
of his Greek generals and mercenaries he reconquered Phœnicia and Egypt. The reins
of government were entirely in the hands of the eunuch Bagoas and of Mentor the Rhodian. At
last he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was succeeded by his youngest son, Arses.
The founder of the dynasty of the Sassanidae. See Persia