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Ἀρταξέρξης). The name of four Persian kings.


Surnamed Longimănus, from his right hand being longer than his left, succeeded his father, Xerxes I., and reigned B.C. 465-425. He carried on war against the Egyptians, who were assisted in their revolt by the Athenians. He was succeeded by his son, Xerxes II.


Surnamed Mnemon, from his good memory, succeeded his father, Darius II., and reigned B.C. 405-359. Respecting the war between him and his brother Cyrus, see Cyrus. Tissaphernes was appointed satrap of Western Asia in the place of Cyrus, and was actively engaged in wars with the Greeks. Artaxerxes had to carry on frequent wars with tributary princes and satraps, who endeavoured to make themselves independent. Thus he maintained a long struggle against Evagoras of Cyprus, from 385 to 376; and his attempts to recover Egypt were unsuccessful. Towards the end of his reign he put to death his eldest son Darius, who had formed a plot to assassinate him. His last days were still further embittered by the unnatural conduct of his son Ochus, who caused the destruction of two of his brothers, in order to secure the succession for himself. Artaxerxes was succeeded by Ochus, who ascended the throne under the name of Artaxerxes III.


Also called Ochus, reigned B.C. 359-338. By the aid of his Greek generals and mercenaries he reconquered Phœnicia and Egypt. The reins of government were entirely in the hands of the eunuch Bagoas and of Mentor the Rhodian. At last he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was succeeded by his youngest son, Arses.


The founder of the dynasty of the Sassanidae. See Persia; Sassanidae.

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