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χῶμα), from ad and gero. A term used in general for a heap or mound of any kind. It was more particularly applied to a mound, usually composed of earth, which was raised around a besieged town, and was gradually increased in breadth and height till it equalled or overtopped the walls. At the siege of Avaricum, Caesar raised

Agger. (From Column of Trajan.)

in twenty-five days an agger 330 feet broad and 80 feet high. The agger was sometimes made not only of earth, but of wood, hurdles, etc., as in the accompanying illustration, whence we read of its being set on fire. The name agger was also applied to the earthen wall surrounding a Roman encampment, composed of the earth dug from the ditch (fossa), which was usually nine feet broad and seven feet deep; but if any attack was apprehended, the depth was increased to twelve feet and the breadth to thirteen feet. Sharp stakes were usually fixed upon the agger, which was then called vallum. When both words are used (as in Caesar, agger ac vallum), the agger means the mound of earth, and the vallum, the sharp stakes which were fixed upon the agger.

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