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Χαλκηδών). A Greek city of Bithynia, on the coast of the Propontis, at the entrance of the Bosporus, nearly opposite to Byzantium, was founded by a colony from Megara in B.C. 685. After a long period of independence, it became subject to the kings of Bithynia, and most of its inhabitants were transferred to the new city of Nicomedia (B.C. 140). Under the Romans it regained much of its former importance. Here was held the fourth Ecumenical Council of the Church, in A.D. 451.

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