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Χαλδαία). In the narrower sense, a province of Babylonia, about the lower course of the Euphrates, the border of the Arabian Desert, and the head of the Persian Gulf. It was intersected by numerous canals, and was extremely fertile. In a wider sense, the term is applied to the whole of Babylonia, and even to the Babylonian Empire, on account of the supremacy which the Chaldaeans acquired at Babylon. (See Babylon.) Xenophon mentions Chaldaeans in the mountains north of Mesopotamia. Their original seat was most probably in the mountains of Armenia and Kurdistan, whence they descended into the plains of Mesopotamia and Babylonia. Respecting the Chaldaeans as the ruling class in the Babylonian monarchy, see Babylonia.

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