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Chrysolōras, Manuel

A Greek scholar who is commonly regarded as having been the first to reintroduce Greek literature into Italy, in the fourteenth century. A native of Constantinople, he was sent by the Greek emperor John Palaeologus to Italy and England, in order to seek aid against the Turks. This mission, which was about the year 1390-91, made Chrysoloras known to many influential Italians; so that when, in 1397, he made his home in Florence as a teacher of Greek, he was received with much consideration. Poggio Bracciolini, Leonardo Bruno, Filelfo, Guarino Guarini, and many other scholars whose names are associated with the Renaissance, were pupils of Chrysoloras, who later engaged in the public service under the popes Gregory XII. and John XXIII. By order of the latter, he attended the Council of Constance, where he died, April 15th, 1415. Two of his works have been printed: the Ἐρωτήματα, for some time the only Greek grammar used in Western Europe; and Epistolae III. de Comparatione Veteris et Novae Romae. A number of others, however, still exist in MS. His son, Iohannes Chrysoloras, was also noted as a teacher of Greek.

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