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ἐπιβολή). A fine imposed by a magistrate on any official, or official body, for a misdemeanor. The various magistrates at Athens had, each in his own department, a summary penal jurisdiction—i. e. for certain offences they might inflict a pecuniary mulct or fine, not exceeding a fixed amount; if the offender deserved further punishment, it was their duty to bring him before a judicial tribunal, the magistrate proposing the penalty. Thus, in case of injury done to orphans and heiresses, or of misconduct at the great Dionysia, the archon might fine the parties; the generals could fine a phylarch for disobedience; the same power belonged to the τειχοποιοί (c. Ctes. 27). If the person fined would not submit to it, the magistrate had to lay the case before a court (pro Milit. 11): that was always required when a demarch imposed a fine (C. I. A. ii. 573 b). The amount of the fine (τέλος) which the individual magistrate might inflict, we do not know; the Senate of Five Hundred was competent to fine to the extent of 500 drachmas.

These ἐπιβολαί are to be distinguished from the penalties awarded by a jury or court of law (τιμήματα) upon a formal prosecution, and from the fine of a thousand drachmas, which the accuser in a public action incurred when he dropped his accusation or failed to obtain a fifth part of the votes, or when a citizen refused to obey the summons to appear as a witness in court; in all these cases the magistrates had no discretionary power.

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