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Fortūna

Τύχη). The goddess of good luck, worshipped from remote antiquity in Italy. Her cultus was supposed to have been introduced into Rome by King Servius Tullius, popularly believed to be her favourite and confidant. He was said to have founded her oldest sanctuaries, as, for instance, that of Fors Fortuna, or lucky chance, on the right bank of the Tiber below Rome. To this a pilgrimage was made down the river by land and water on the anniversary of its foundation (June 26). As time went on, the worship of Fortuna became one of the most popular in Italy. She was worshipped at a great number of shrines under various titles given according to the various circumstances of life in which her influence was supposed to have effect. These titles were Fortuna Primigenia, who determines the destiny of the child at its birth; Fortuna Publica or Populi Romani, the tutelary goddess of the State; Fortuna Caesaris or Augusta, the protectress of the emperor; Fortuna Privata, or of family life; Fortuna Patricia, Plebeia, Equestris, of the different orders, classes, and families of the population; Fortuna Liberûm, of children; Virginalis, of maidens; Muliebris, of women. Fortuna Virilis was the goddess of woman's happiness in married life, of boys and of youths, who dedicated to her the first cuttings of their beards, calling her from this Fortuna Barbata. Other epithets of Fortuna were Victrix, or giver of victory; Conservatrix, or preserver; Dux or Comes, the leader or attendant; Redux, who brings safe home; Tranquilla, the giver of prosperous voyages. This Fortuna was worshipped with Portunus in the harbour of Rome. There were also Fortuna Bona and Mala, good and evil Fortune; Blanda or flattering, Obsequens or yielding, Dubia or doubtful, Viscata or enticing, Brevis or fickle, and Manens or constant.

Goddesses of Fortune. (
Fortunae Antiates
, coin of the
gens Rustia
, from Gerhard,
Ant. Bildw.
taf. iv. 3, 4.)

Trajan at last founded a special temple in her honour as the allpervading power of the world. Here an annual sacrifice was offered to her on New Year's Day. In works of art she was represented with the same attributes as the Greek Τύχη (see Tyché). Fortuna, in her general character as a goddess of Nature and of Fate, had an ancient and celebrated temple, in which oracles were delivered, at Praenesté and Antium. See Praenesté.

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