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Gubernăculum

πηδάλιον). A rudder; originally nothing more than a large oar with a broad blade, either fastened by braces (funes, ζεύγλαι) outside

Gubernacula. (Pompeii.)

the quarters of the vessel or passed through an aperture in the bulwarks. Later, it was furnished with a cross-bar, which served as a tiller, like the left-hand figure, from a Pompeian painting. Its different parts were distinguished by the following names: ansa, the handle, a; clavus, the shaft, b; pinna, the blade, c. The word is frequently used in the plural; because the ancient vessels were commonly furnished with two rudders, one on each quarter, each of which had its own helmsman, if the vessel was a large one; but were both managed by a single steersman when it was small enough. See Gubernator; Navis.

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