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A student beginning the study of Roman law was instituted in the subject (institui); that is, he went through an elementary course of legal instruction under the direction of a competent lawyer. Such introductory study led to the publication of law books of an educational kind, which were called Institutiones. There were various institutional works written by the Roman jurists. Thus Callistratus, who lived under Septimius Severus and Antoninus Caracalla, wrote three books of Institutiones; Aelius Marcianus wrote sixteen books of Institutiones, under Caracalla, or shortly afterwards; Florentinus, who probably lived in the time of the Antonines, wrote twelve books of Institutiones, from which there are forty-two excerpts in the Digest; Paulus also wrote two books of Institutiones. There still remain fragments of the Institutiones of Ulpian. But the most important treatise of this kind that we know of was the Institutiones of Gaius , in four books or commentaries, of which the first relates to persons, the second and third to property, and the fourth to actions. (See Gaius.) On the Institutiones of Justinian, see Corpus Iuris Civilis; Iustinianus.

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