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Mausolēum

Μαυσωλεῖον). A splendid sepulchre at Halicarnassus, built in honour of King Mausolus of Caria, who died B.C. 353, by his wife Artemisia, and reckoned by the ancients one of the seven wonders of the world (Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxvi. 30, 31). It consisted of an oblong substructure surrounded by thirty-six columns, with a circuit of 440 feet, crowned by a pyramid diminishing by twenty-four steps to its summit, on which stood a marble quadriga, the work of Pythis (or Pythius, Brunn, Gr. Künstler, ii. 377, first ed.). The height of the whole building, gorgeous with the most varied colours, was 140 feet. Satyrus and Pythius were the architects, and the sculptures on the four sides were executed by Scopas, Bryaxis, Timotheus, and Leochares. In the twelfth century after Christ the work was still in a good state of preservation; in succeeding centuries it fell to pieces more and more, until the Knights of St. John used it as a quarry from the time when they built their castle on the site of the old Greek acropolis in 1402, down to the repair of their fortifications in 1522, when they made lime of its marble sculptures. In 1845, a number of reliefs were extracted from the walls

Restoration of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. (Reber.)

of the castle and placed in the British Museum. In 1857 the site was discovered by Newton, acting under a commission from the English government, and the sculptures thus unearthed, including the statue of Mausolus and important fragments of the marble quadriga, were removed to the British Museum. See Newton's History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, etc., 1862; Travels and Discoveries,

Present Appearance of the Mausoleum of Hadrian at Rome.

ii. 84-137; and for a restoration, the article Architectura in this Dictionary, p. 113.

The Romans gave the name of Mausoleum to all sepulchres which approached that of Mausolus in size and grandeur of execution, as, for instance,


1.

that erected by Augustus for himself and his family, the magnificence of which is attested by the still extant walls inclosing it, on the Via de' Pontefici in Rome (see Augustus, p. 170); and


2.

the sepulchre of Hadrian, which is in part preserved in the Castle of S. Angelo, a circular building of 220 feet in diameter and 72 feet high, resting on a square base, the sides of which are almost 100 yards long. It was originally covered with Parian marble, and profusely ornamented with colonnades and statues, and probably had a pyramid on the top.

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