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μισθωτοί, μισθοφόροι, ξένοι, and collectively τὸ ξενικόν). Mercenary troops. Apart from a few earlier examples of the employment of mercenaries, a regular organization of such troops was formed among the Greeks in the course of the Peloponnesian War, especially by the Arcadians, who were compelled by the poverty of their own country to utilize their strength and courage by seeking employment outside it. It was most easily found by serving as soldiers in the continual wars between the Grecian States. When the mercenary system was at its height, Arcadians formed by far the larger portion of the mercenary forces, even as early as in the first great army of mercenaries of 13,000 men, which the younger Cyrus led against his brother Artaxerxes, king of Persia, in B.C. 401. In Greece in the fourth century the ground became more and more favourable to the growth of the mercenary body, and the citizens of the Greek States, instead of bearing arms themselves, became more and more inclined to leave their wars to be fought out by mercenaries, especially since it had become a trade to form troops of mercenaries, and to let them out wholesale for service, no matter whether to Greeks or barbarians. Even prominent men, such as Agesilaüs and Philopoemen, did not consider it beneath their dignity to fight for strangers at the head of mercenaries. One of the chief recruiting places in the fourth century was Corinth, and afterwards for a time the district near the promontory of Taenarum in Lacedaemon. The generals of mercenaries were called στρατηγοί; their captains, through whom they raised companies of different kinds of troops, known as λόχοι, one hundred men in number, λοχαγοί. The usual monthly pay of a common soldier was on the average a gold daric (=20 silver drachmae or $3 in intrinsic value of silver, but in intrinsic value of the gold contained in it a little more than $5). Out of this he had to maintain himself entirely, to buy his armour, and keep it in good condition. The pay of the λοχαγοί was double and of the στρατηγοί four times that amount. In later times the στρατηγοί, when they entered with complete armies into the service of some power at war, seem to have generally received considerable sums at the conclusion of the contract. The Romans also employed foreign mercenaries after the Second Punic War, especially as archers and slingers, and after the time of Marius a recruited army of mercenaries (see Legio) had sprung out of the earlier levied army of citizens; but the mercenary organization never took among the Romans a form similar to that among the Greeks.

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