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Φώκαια). The northernmost of the Ionian cities on the west coast of Asia Minor, celebrated as a great maritime State, and especially as the founder of the Greek colony of Massilia (q.v.) in Gaul. The name Phocaean is often used with reference to Massilia. It was said to have been founded by Phocian colonists under Philogenes and Damon. It was originally within the limits of Aeolis, in the territory of Cyme; but the Cymaeans voluntarily gave up the site for the new city, which was soon admitted into the Ionian Confederacy on the condition of adopting oecists of the race of Codrus. It was admirably situated, and possessed two excellent harbours, Naustathmus and Lampter. After the Persian conquest of Ionia, Phocaea had so declined that she could only furnish three ships to support the great Ionian revolt; but the spirit of her people had not been extinguished; when the common cause was hopeless, and their city was besieged by Harpalus, they embarked, to seek new abodes in the distant West, and bent their course to their colony of Aetalia in Corsica. During the voyage, however, a portion of the emigrants resolved to return to their native city, which they restored, and which recovered much of its prosperity, as is proved by the rich booty gained by the Romans, when they plundered it under the praetor Aemilius, after which it does not appear as a place of any consequence in history.

Care must be taken not to confound Phocaea with Phocis, or the ethnic adjectives of the former, Φωκαεύς and Phocaeënsis, with those of the latter, Φωκεύς and Phocensis; some of the ancient writers themselves have fallen into these mistakes.

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