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Φώτιος). A Greek scholar of the Byzantine Period, Patriarch of Constantinople A.D. 857-867 and 871-886. He died 891. Besides playing a prominent part in the ecclesiastical controversies of his time, he was conspicuous for his wide reading of ancient literature. Apart from theological writings, he left two works which are of great service to the student of antiquity. The one, the Bibliotheca (Μυροβίβλιον or Βιβλιοθήκη), is an account of 280 works, some of which are now lost, some only imperfectly preserved, which he read on his embassy to Assyria, with short notices and criticisms of matter and style, and in some cases more or less complete abstracts; the other, a Lexicon (Λέξεων Συναγωγή), or alphabetical glossary, of special value in connection with the Greek orators and historians. The Bibliotheca is edited by Bekker (Berlin, 1824-25); and the Lexicon by Hermann (Leipzig, 1808); from the papers of Porson (London, 1822); and by Naber, 2 vols. (1866). See also Hergenröther, Photios (1869); and the article Lexicon.

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