A Greek tragic poet of Athens, an older contemporary of Aeschylus. He won his first victory
as early as B.C. 511. He rendered a great service to the development of the drama by
introducing an actor distinct from the leader of the chorus, and so laying the foundation for
the dialogue. But the dialogue was still quite subordinate to the lyrics of the chorus. In
this department he won extraordinary celebrity by the grace and melody of his verses, which
continued to be sung at Athens long after. Besides mythical subjects, he dealt with events of
contemporary history, as the conquest of Miletus (Μίλητου
) by the Persians. At the representation of that event the audience burst
into tears, and the poet was fined 1000 drachmae for recalling the disasters of his country,
all further performance of the piece being prohibited (Herod.vi.
). Again, in his Phoenissae
(so named after the chorus of Sidonian
women) he dealt with the battle of Salamis. This play, which was put on the stage by
Themistocles in 478, was the model of Aeschylus's Persae.
Aeschylus, is said to have died in Sicily. We possess only the titles of nine of his plays
and a few fragments.
A Greek poet of Athens; one of the less important writers of the Old Attic Comedy, and a
frequent butt of the other comic poets. In B.C. 405, however, his Musae
the second prize after Aristophanes' Frogs.
We have only fragments of about
ten plays, ed. by Koch (1880 foll.).
A Greek Sophist, who lived in the second half of the third century A.D. in Bithynia; author
of a selection of Attic verbs and nouns (Ἐκλογὴ Π̔ημάτων καὶ
), compiled with great strictness in the exclusion of all
but the best Attic forms. We have also notable excerpts from a work of his in thirty-seven
books, dedicated to the emperor Commodus, and entitled The Sophistic Armoury
). It was founded on the most comprehensive
learning, and designed to supply the orator with everything necessary for good and pure
expression. The arrangement is alphabetical, and it includes examples from the best authors,
the different styles being carefully distinguished. The first work is edited by Lobeck
; the second by Bekker (Berlin, 1814)
Rutherford's New Phrynichus (1881)