). A round
felt cap with little or no brim, lying close to the temples. It was the mark of fishermen,
sailors, and artisans; hence Castor and Pollux, Odysseus, Charon , Hephaestus, and Daedalus
Forms of the Pilleus.
represented with it. The upper classes wore it only in the country or when
travelling; but it was worn in Rome by the whole people at the Saturnalia, and by freedmen as
a sign of their new position. Hence the phrase ad pilleos vocare
“to set free.” (Cf. Pers. iii. 106.
first form of pilleus represented in the illustration is that which has become in modern times
the “liberty cap.” It was Phrygian in its origin. It was placed on the
head of slaves when sold, as a sign that the vender undertook no responsibility. See Servus
The diminutive forms pilleŏlus and pilleŏlum are also used.