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A Roman province between the Danube and the Alps, separated on the west from Noricum by the Mons Cetius, and from Upper Italy by the Alpes Iuliae, on the south from Illyria by the Savus, on the east from Dacia by the Danube, and on the north from Germany by the same river. It corresponded, therefore, to the eastern part of Austria, Carinthia, Styria, Carniola, and Hungary with Slavonia and part of Croatia and Bosnia.

The Pannonians (Pannonii) were probably of Illyrian origin. They were a brave and warlike people, and were conquered by the Romans in the time of Augustus (about B.C. 33). In A.D. 7 the Pannonians joined the Dalmatians and the other Illyrian tribes in their revolt from Rome, but were conquered by Tiberius after a struggle which lasted three years (A.D. 7-9). Pannonia was originally only one province, but was afterwards divided into two provinces, called Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior. The principal towns were Carnuntum, Siscia (Sissek), Poetovio (Pettau), Sopianae (Fünfkirchen), and Aquincum (Altofen).

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