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The Roman term for misappropriation of public property, whether by officials (e. g. in the delivery of booty) or by private persons. Such offences, which seldom occurred in the more ancient times of the Republic, were then judged by the national tribunal. In later times they must have become more frequent, since various laws were issued against them, and a special court of justice (see Quaestio) was appointed to try them. Besides the payment of compensation, the condemned person suffered disgrace and banishment (interdictio aquae et ignis, see Exsilium), and, in the time of the Empire, transportation. See Deportatio.

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