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σκηναί, γέρρα).


A shop. It was so named because in Rome the shops consisted for the most part of boarded stalls projecting from the houses or raised under the colonnades which surrounded the market-places. Subsequently, however, as wealth and commerce increased, the groundstory of the rows of houses, and even palaces, in a street were appropriated for shops and let out to separate tradesmen, as in many of the great mansions in Continental towns. In the majority of cases the shop had no communication with the rest of the house, the tenant merely occupying it for the purpose of his business and dwelling himself elsewhere; but some few houses of a respectable class have been discovered at Pompeii in which the shop has an entrance from its back into the habitable parts of the mansion, and these are reasonably believed to have been in the occupancy of the persons who dwelt on the premises, and who

Roman Shop. (Pompeian painting.)

are, in consequence, supposed to have been wealthy tradesmen. The general appearance of a Roman shop, as uniformly exhibited by the numerous examples remaining at Pompeii, resembled those of our butchers and fish-dealers, being entirely open in front with the exception of a low wall forming the counter, and were closed by wooden shutters at night. They are mostly comprised in a single room, without any other convenience; though in some instances a small back parlour and other appurtenances are added. The annexed illustration represents an elevation restored of six shop-fronts at Pompeii.

Shop-fronts at Pompeii. (Restoration.)

Various signs on the fronts of shops denoted the especial business carried on. Thus a wooden goat indicated a milk-dealer's; an

Sign from Baker's Shop. (Pompeii.)

amphora, a wine-shop; a snake (the symbol of Aesculapius), an apothecary's; a row of hams, an eating-house, etc. (See Domus, pp. 548, 549.)


A tavern. See Caupona.

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