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Ἀριστόξενος). A Greek philosopher and musician, a native of Tarentum, and a pupil of Aristotle. He lived about B.C. 330, and was a prolific writer on various subjects, but most particularly on music. In contrast with the Pythagoreans, who referred everything to the relations of numbers, he regarded music as founded on the difference of tones as perceived by the ear. Of his Ἁρμονικὰ Στοιχεῖα three books are preserved, but they are neither complete nor in their original shape. They have been edited by Marquard (Berlin, 1869) and Saran (Leipzig, 1893). Only a part of his Ῥυθμικὰ Στοιχεῖα has survived. See Musica.

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