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Ἰουγούρθας). An illegitimate son of Mastanabal, and grandson of Masinissa. He lost his father at an early age, but was brought up by Micipsa with his own sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Iugurtha was a brave, able, and ambitious prince, and distinguished himself greatly while serving under Scipio against Numantia, in B.C. 134. Micipsa, on his death in 118, bequeathed his kingdom to Iugurtha and his two sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal, in common. Iugurtha aspired to the sole sovereignty. He assassinated Hiempsal soon after his father's death, and a division of the kingdom between Iugurtha and Adherbal was then made by the Roman Senate; but shortly afterwards Iugurtha attacked Adherbal, took him prisoner, and put him to death (112 B.C.). The Romans had previously commanded Iugurtha to abstain from hostilities against Adherbal; and as he had paid no attention to their commands, they now declared war against him. The consul L. Calpurnius Bestia was sent into Africa (111 B.C.); but by large sums of money Iugurtha purchased from him a favourable peace—a disgraceful proceeding which excited the greatest indignation at Rome. The peace was disowned, and the war renewed under the command of the consul Sp. Postumius Albinus; but during the absence of the consul, his brother Aulus was defeated by Iugurtha (110 B.C.). Next year (109 B.C.) the consul Q. Caecilius Metellus, an able general and incorruptible man, was sent into Africa at the head of a new army. In the course of two years Metellus frequently defeated Iugurtha, and at length drove him to take refuge among the Gaetulians. In 107 Metellus was succeeded in the command by Marius. The cause of Iugurtha was now supported by his father-in-law, Bocchus, king of Mauretania; but Marius defeated their united forces, and Bocchus purchased the forgiveness of the Romans by surrendering his son-in-law to Sulla , the quaestor of Marius (106 B.C.). Iugurtha was carried a prisoner to Rome, and after adorning the triumph of Marius (January 1, 104), was thrown into a dungeon, and there starved to death. The history of the Jugurthine War was written by Sallust, and is a masterpiece of historical composition. See Sallustius.

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