), freedom from
fear, or security, in any public action. When any one in Athens, who had not
the full privileges of an Athenian citizen, such as a foreigner, a slave,
&c., wished to accuse a person of any offence against the people, he
was obliged to obtain first permission to do so, which permission was called
(Andoc. de Myst.
Plut. Per. 31
.) The ad
of a citizen did not protect the false accuser (Andoc. l.c.
p. 4.20). An Athenian citizen who had incurred
was also obliged to obtain ad eia
before he could take part in public affairs
(Plut. Phoc. 26
); and it was not lawful
for any one to propose to the people, that an atimos
should be restored to his rights as a citizen, or that a public debtor
should be released from his debt, till ad eia
been granted for this purpose by a decree passed in an assembly of 6000
citizens voting secretly by ballot.. (Dem. c. Timocr.
715.47; Böckh, Public Economy of Athens,