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ARDA´NION (ἀρδάνιον or ἀρδάλιον), a vessel full of water, which was placed at the door of a house in which a dead body was lying, in order that persons on leaving the house might purify themselves by sprinkling themselves [p. 1.175]with the water. Since the house in which the body lay was considered to be polluted, the water was fetched from some other house (Poll. 8.66; Eur. Alc. 100; Aristoph. Eccl. 1033; Hesych., Suid., s. v.). [J.H.O]

A´REA, any open space (loca pura, Varr. L. L. 5.38; locus vacuus, Paul. Diac. p. 11, Müll.; locus sine aedificio in urbe area, rure autem ager appellatur, Dig. 50, 16, 211). Many special usages of the word belong properly to the Latin dictionary. The following may here be noted :--(1) A site for building (Hor. Ep. 1.10, 13). (2) The site of a house pulled down in consequence of the owner's treason, and devoted to religious uses (consecrata): such were the houses of Sp. Cassius (Ea est area ante Telluris aedem, Liv. 2.41) and Sp. Maelius, called afterwards Aequimaelium (id. 4.16). Cicero's house, when pulled down by Clodius, became an area in both these senses (Cic. Att. 4.1, 2; ad Fam. 14.2). (3) An open space in front of a temple, house, or public building, always clear of the edifice itself and abutting upon the street or upon other buildings, and thus to be distinguished from the vestibulum, which was between the projecting wings of the building itself [DOMUS]. The areae before cemeteries often contained the ustrinum or place where bodies were burnt (area ante sepulcrum est maceria cineta, Orelli-Henzen, Inscr. 4400); and Tertullian applies the word to the graveyards of the Christians, who did not burn their dead (ad Scap. 3; cf. Dict. of Chr. Ant. 1.252 a). Those in front of temples were often named after the god, and consecrated to prevent appropriation or encroachment: thus we have area Pollucis, Saturni, Apollinis, Concordiae, and Vulcani, called also Vulcanal or -ale. The area Apollinis adjoined the temple of the Palatine Apollo and the celebrated library; it may be traced on the marble plan of Rome, of the age of Severus, now known as the “Pianta Capitolina,” where the letters REA APO may be read on one of the fragments, and an altar is seen, approached by a double flight of steps. The Vulcanal was originally a considerable space on the clivus or slope of the Capitol, but was gradually encroached upon by other structures, notably the Temple of Concord (Liv. 9.46); so that we even find the phrase area Vulcani et Concordiae (id. 40.16), as if the two areae had become indistinguishable. (Compare Burn, Rome, pp. 85, 175; Pauly, s. v. Volcanale; Marquardt, Privatleben, p. 220.) (4) Areae were sometimes used as market-places; there was an area pannaria and a radicaria. (5) A threshing-floor (ἅλως), described under AGRICULTURA


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