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CADUS (κάδος), a large vessel usually of earthenware; indeed the Ionians used the word to denote any earthenware jar. (Clitarchus ap. Ath. 11.473 b). It was most frequently used, like the amphora, to keep wine in (Archilochus ap. Ath. 11.483 d' after it had been drawn from the dolium, and especially wine which was conveyed across the sea, such as Chian. (Hdt. 3.20; Ath. 11.473 b; Hor. Od. 3.19, 5; Verg. A. 1.195; Plin. Nat. 14. § § 96, 97, “vini Falerni amphoras, Chii cados distribuit,” 36.59.) Other kinds of produce stored in cadi were honey (Mart. 1.55, 10), oil (id. 1.43, 9; Plin. Nat. 15.33), figs (ib. 82), beans (id. 18.307), and salt fish (ib. 308), and sometimes plants were grown in them (id. 27.14, 25.160).

Its use connects it with the amphora, and in early Attic an ἀμφορεὺς was called κάδος (Pollux, 10.71; cf. Aristoph. Birds 1032, Schol.: κάδους ἀμφορικούς). It may be concluded then that it resembled the amphora in shape: its lower part, however, was ovoid, for in Aristoph. Peace 1258 (cf. Schol.) the helmets are to be turned into κάδοι by the addition of handles. Plato (Rep. 10.616 D) speaks of οἱ κάδοι οἱ εἰς ἀλλήλους ἁρμόττοντες: Pliny (Plin. Nat. 27.14), of the turbines cadorum. Again κάδος is used to denote the well bucket (γαυλός, ὑπαντλεῖν) in Aristoph. Eccl. 1002 ; Eur. Cycl. 33, Schol.; Hesych. and Suid. s. v. γαυλός; Ath. 3.125 a,

Cadus, well-bucket. (Bottari.)

11.590 f: we may therefore identify its shape, when thus used, with that of the situla in the accompanying woodcut from Bottari, Scult. e Pitt. sagre di Roma, pl. xxiii. (ap. D. and S.) But this shape is obviously not adapted to its ordinary use of a vessel for storing wine, for which purpose it was closed by a lid (Archilochus, l.c.) or by cork (Plin. Nat. 16.34), and must have had a narrower mouth.

Κάδος is used in Aristoph. Birds 1030, 1053, in place of the more usual καδίσκος, to denote the urn used in ballots [PSEPHUS].

The word is used (Priscian, de Pond. et Mens. 84) as an equivalent of the Attic amphora or μετρητής, a measure containing twelve χόες or about nine gallons English. From this and its various uses we may conclude that it was a vessel of large dimensions; indeed, in a comic writer (ap. Ath. 11.781 f) we read of κάδοι larger than a man. Hence it is only in passages of comic exaggeration that it is spoken of as a drinking vessel. (Id. 10.431 f; 11.472, 473, 503, b, c).

Cadi were made not only of earthenware, but also of onyx (Plin. Nat. 36.59), of ophites (ib. 158), and of gold (Ath. 13.590f).


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