), a large vessel
usually of earthenware; indeed the Ionians used the word to denote any
earthenware jar. (Clitarchus ap. Ath. 11.473
b). It was most frequently used, like the amphora,
to keep wine in (Archilochus ap. Ath. 11.483
d' after it had been drawn from the dolium,
and especially wine which was conveyed
across the sea, such as Chian. (Hdt. 3.20
; Ath. 11.473
b; Hor. Od.
; Verg. A. 1.195
; Plin. Nat. 14
§ § 96, 97, “vini Falerni amphoras, Chii cados
distribuit,” 36.59.) Other kinds of produce stored in cadi
were honey (Mart.
), oil (id.
1.43, 9; Plin. Nat.
), figs (ib. 82), beans (id.
18.307), and salt fish (ib. 308), and sometimes plants were grown in them
Its use connects it with the amphora,
early Attic an ἀμφορεὺς
(Pollux, 10.71; cf. Aristoph. Birds 1032
, Schol.: κάδους ἀμφορικούς
). It may be concluded then
that it resembled the amphora
in shape: its
lower part, however, was ovoid, for in Aristoph. Peace 1258
(cf. Schol.) the helmets are to be turned
by the addition of handles.
10.616 D) speaks of οἱ
κάδοι οἱ εἰς ἀλλήλους ἁρμόττοντες
: Pliny (Plin. Nat. 27.14
), of the turbines cadorum.
is used to denote the well bucket (γαυλός, ὑπαντλεῖν
) in Aristoph. Eccl. 1002
; Eur. Cycl.
, Schol.; Hesych. and Suid. s. v. γαυλός
; Ath. 3.125
Cadus, well-bucket. (Bottari.)
11.590 f: we may therefore identify its shape, when thus used,
with that of the situla
in the accompanying
woodcut from Bottari, Scult. e Pitt. sagre di Roma,
xxiii. (ap. D. and S.) But this shape is obviously not adapted to its
ordinary use of a vessel for storing wine, for which purpose it was closed
by a lid (Archilochus, l.c.
) or by cork (Plin. Nat. 16.34
), and must have had a
is used in Aristoph. Birds 1030
, in place of the more usual
to denote the urn used in
The word is used (Priscian, de Pond. et Mens.
84) as an
equivalent of the Attic amphora
a measure containing twelve χόες
or about nine gallons English. From this
and its various uses we may conclude that it was a vessel of large
dimensions; indeed, in a comic writer (ap. Ath.
f) we read of κάδοι
than a man. Hence it is only in passages of comic exaggeration that it is
spoken of as a drinking vessel. (Id.
11.472, 473, 503, b, c).
were made not only of earthenware, but also
of onyx (Plin. Nat. 36.59
), of ophites
(ib. 158), and of gold (Ath. 13.590f