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2. A portable cooking-stove.

In this sense the word caldarium occurs only in late authors, though the thing itself is well known through numerous specimens found at Pompeii, and now in the Naples Museum. The classical term for it is probably focus. In Seneca's time, Roman epicurism brought these stoves into the dining-room (cenatio), that the dishes might be served to perfection ( “tumultus coquorum est ipsos cum obsoniis focos transferentium . . . cenam culina prosequitur,” Sen. Ep. 78.23).

The caldarium here figured (Mus. Borbon. xii. pl. 46) has been described by Rich, who, however,

Caldarium. (
Museo Borbonico,
xii. pl. 46.)

with less probability, calls it an authepsa. The sides, which are hollow, contained water, and a small cock projects from one of them (seen in the engraving), by which it was drawn. off; the four towers at the angles are provided with moveable lids; the centre received the lighted charcoal, and cooking vessels might be placed on it or suspended over it. Another contrivance already figured (see the second cut under AUTHEPSA) seems to combine the two purposes of supplying hot water and keeping dishes hot. It has the cylinder with a place in the centre for a charcoal fire, which is the characteristic of an authepsa ; and it is also furnished with a shallow oblong tray, into which the hot water from the cylinder was drawn by a cock, and on which dishes may have been placed.

These caldaria might be shaped like a milestone (as in a specimen figured Mus. Borbon. iv. pl. 59, also by Saglio) or in more eccentric designs ( “dracones et miliaria et complures formas,” Sen. Nat. Quaest. 3.24.2). The same passage describes boiler-tubes, not unlike those of a modern steam-engine. These contrivances show great skill in the economy of fuel and the conveniences of life. Pollux (10.66) gives a long list of vessels for heating water, but little by which we can identify the different shapes.

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