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CUCULLUS a cowl, was intended to be used in the open air, and to be drawn over the head to protect it from the injuries of the weather, instead of a hat or cap. It was worn by travellers, shepherds, husbandmen, and hunters (Col. 1.8; Cato, Cat. Agr. 2; Juv. 3.170; Hor. Sat. 2.5, 94), and even by legionaries on service in cold climates, as is seen on Trajan's Column, and also in city life even by persons of distinction who wished to go abroad without being recognised (Juv. 6.330, 8.145; Cic. Phil. 2.31; Mart. 11.98, 10; Lamprid. Elagab. 32, cucullio mulionicus). The cowl was sometimes a separate garment (Mart. 14.132), as is seen in the figures under CAUPONA p. 388, representing a tavern scene. Sometimes it formed part of the lacerna or paenula or other cloak, which was then said to be cucullatus (Isid. Orig. 19.24, 17). This is shown in the figure annexed from a relief representing a traveller leaving his inn (Bullet. Napol. 1848, 1; cf. Pallad. 1.43, 4). In either case the hood might be worn over the head, or thrown back on the shoulder. The monastic use of the cowl is enjoined in the Rule of S. Benedict, lv., and may have arisen from a desire to escape observation, or according to S. Jerome (Ep. xxii.) because the cucullus was much worn by children, to whose level the monks wished to humble themselves. The use of the cowl, and also of the cape [BIRRUS], which served

Cucullus. (Figure from Aesernia.)

the same purpose, was allowed to slaves by a law in the Codex Theodosianus. (Vossius, Etym. Ling. Lat. s. v. Birrus.) Cowls were imported into Italy from Saintonge in France (Santonico cucullo, Juv. 8.145; Schol. in loc.), and from the country of the Bardaei in Illyria. (Jul. Cap. Pertinax, 8.) Those from the latter locality were probably of a peculiar fashion, which gave origin to the term Bardocucullus. Liburnici cuculli are mentioned by. Martial (14.139). The cucullio is either simply another form of the word cucullus or denotes a very similar garment (cf. Dict. of Christ. Antiq., art. Cuculla).

[J.Y] [J.H.F]

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