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1. Slaves, whose duty it was to run before the carriage of their masters, for the same purpose as our outriders. They are not mentioned under the republic, and appear to have first come into fashion in the middle of the first century of the Christian aera. The slaves employed for this purpose appear to have frequently been Numidians. (Senec. Ep. 37, 9, 123, 7; Mart. 3.47, 12.24; Suet. Nero 30, Tit. 9; Petron. 28; Dig. 32, 1, 99.5; Becker-Göll, Gallus, ii. p. 159.)

2. Messengers or couriers (Nep. Milt. 4, 3; Plin. Nat. 2.181, Plin. Ep. 7.12; Suet. Nero 49; Mart. 3.100; Tac. Agric. 43). [CURSUS PUBLICUS]

3. Runners in the foot-race [CURSUS], or competitors in a chariot-race ( “ut cupidi cursor frenat frena retentat equi” (Ov. Pont. 3.9, 26).


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