derived from capic,
and means “a
halter” for animals, just like our own in shape, made apparently of
leather (Marquardt, Privatalt.
718). It was used especially
in the manger (Xen. Eq. 5
1.41): hence φορβειά,
derived from (φέρβω.
It may be questioned if φορβειὰ
originally of the nature of a nose-bag, like χειλωτήρ
(see Stephanus, Thesaurus
), with the provender at the bottom of it. We also find
used for leading or guiding
animals when quite tame (Ovid. Met.
2.80; Mart. 1.104
); hence the satirical application to the married
state in Juv. 6.43
. The term φορβειὰ
was further applied to the band of
leather which flute-players put over their mouths and about their heads,
like a halter, to keep them from blowing too hard and so to enable them to
get a softer tone and to hold out longer (Soph. Fr.
582). It is also called κημός
(Poll. 10.56): cf. ἐπιστομίζειν,
2.713 D. The Latin capistrum
is not used in this sense. Guhl and Koner say that in
representations of theatrical players where the long double clarionet
required a great effort of breath, in order to avoid any side-loss of
breath, this mouth-band is frequently found; but never on the vase-pictures
of female flute-players at banquets, nor ever where a single clarionet is
played. The (φορβειὰ
sometimes had no
second strap going over
the head, but simply
the one strap tied over the mouth and round the back of the head. On the
next page is an illustration taken from Baumeister's
Denkmäler des klassischen Altertums
This leads on to the meaning of “muzzle,” which also belongs to
which was used to prevent
animals eating or biting (Cato, Cat. Agr. 54
Plin. Nat. 18.177
); in Verg. G. 3.399
for kids have iron spikes to prevent them sucking. In
ecclesiastical Latin camus
is used for a
muzzle; but where that word occurs in Plautus (Cas.
it rather [p. 1.358]
means a log put on the neck of a
refractory slave. The Greeks called it κῆμος
(Xen. Eq. 5
3), or more generally (φιμός,
which may be
regarded as put round (Lucian, Vit. Auct.
22) the neck (Ar.
592). Often (φιμοῦν
is found in the N. T. in the sense of “to put, to silence:” e.
g. Matt. 22.34. As might be expected, the capistra
appear to have been generally soft,
Capistrum or mouth-band for flute-player. (Baumeister.)
whether halters (Ov. Met. 10.125
or muzzles. These latter appear to have sometimes been of platted osiers
Plin. Nat. 18.177
Capistrum, bronze horse-muzzle. (British Museum.)
or of perforated leather (Saglio, Dict.
Sometimes they were of bronze. There are two such in the British Museum, one
of which is figured above. Such muzzles, with short pipes (αὐλωτοὶ φιμοί
instead of mere perforations, were occasionally used on warhorses, so that
their snorting should give a whistling sound (Aesch. Theb.
463), and we need not suppose with Eustath. (on Il.
and Hesych. that bells were attached to them.
In the general sense of “holder” or “supporter” we
used as a band for fastening up
vines (Col. 4.20
and by Cato (Cat. Agr. 12
) as a strap for the