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CATALY´SEOS TOU DEMOU GRAPHE´ (καταλύσεως τοῦ δήμου γραφή was an action brought against those persons who had altered, or attempted to alter, the democratical form of government at Athens; and was closely connected with, and scarcely distinguishable from, the προδοσίας γραφή (ἐπὶ προδοσίᾳ τῆς πολέως, ἐπὶ καταλύσει τοῦ δήμου συνιών, Dem. c. Timocr. p. 745.144). The form of proceeding was the same in both cases; namely, by εἰσαγγελία. In the case of καταλύσεως τοῦ δήμου, the punishment was death; the property of the offender was confiscated to the state, and a tenth part dedicated to Athena. A person was also liable to this action who held any public office in the state after the democracy had been subverted (Psephisma of Demophantus ap. Andoc. de Myst. § § 96-98). The orator Lycurgus argues reasonably enough that a conspiracy to subvert the constitution must be punished if it fails, for if it succeeds the criminal will be out of the reach of punishment (c. Leocr. § § 124-126). But if his statement of the law may be relied on, too much scope is allowed for vague suspicion by the words ἤν τις αἴσθηται μόνον μέλλοντας αὐτοὺς τούτων τι ποιεῖν: and his argument in § 147, that Leocrates by his flight had become liable, among other penalties, to an action καταλύσεως τοῦ δήμου, is an instance of constructive treason pushed to its extremest limits. According to Andocides and Lycurgus, the decree of Demophantus provided not only that the offender might be slain with impunity, but that all Athenians should bind themselves by the most solemn oaths to do their part in killing him.

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