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CLETE´RES or CLE´TORES (κλητῆρες or κλήτορες), summoners. The Athenian summoners were not official persons, but merely witnesses to the prosecutor that he had served the defendant with a notice of the action brought against him, and the day upon which it would be requisite for him to appear before the proper magistrate, in order that the first examination of the case might commence. (Harpocrat.) In Aristophanes (Aristoph. Cl. 1246; Vesp. 1408) we read of one summoner only being employed, but two are generally mentioned by the orators as the usual number. (Dem. c. Nicostr. p. 1251.14; de Coron. 244.55; c. Boeot. ii. p. 1017.28.) The names of the summoners were subscribed to the declaration or bill of the prosecutor, and were, of course, essential to the validity of all proceedings founded upon it. What has been hitherto stated applies in general to all causes, whether δίκαι or γραφαί: but in some which commenced with an information laid before magistrates, and an arrest of the accused in corsequence (as in the case of an ἔνδειξις or εἰσαγγελία), there would be no occasion for a summons, nor, of course, witnesses to its service. In the εὔθυναι and δοκιμασίαι also, when held at the regular times, no summons was issued, as the persons whose character might be affected by an accusation were necessarily present, or presumed to be so ; but if the prosecutor had let the proper day pass, and proposed to hold a special εὔθυνα at any other time during the year in which the defendant was liable to be called to account for his conduct in office (ὑπεύθυνος), the agency of summoners was as requisite as in any other case. Of the δοκιμασίαι that of the orators alone had no fixed time; but the first step in the cause was not the usual legal summons (πρόσκλησις), but an announcement from the prosecutor to the accused in the assembly of the people. (Meier, Att. Process, pp. 212, 576.) In the event of persons subscribing themselves falsely as summoners, they exposed themselves to an action (ψευδοκλητείας) at the suit of the party aggrieved.


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