is defined by Modestinus to be one “qui per
prolixum tempus vagatus, reducitur,” and differs from an emansor,
“qui diu vagatus ad castra egreditur” (Dig.
, tit. 16, s. 3). Those who deserted in time of peace were
punished by reduction to the ranks (gradus dejectio,
V. Max. 2.7.4
), corporal chastisement, fines,
or ignominious dismissal from the service (missio
[Caes.] B. Afr.
54). Those who
left the standards in time of war were usually punished with death (Dionys. A. R. 11.43
lvi.; Tac. Ann. 13.36
Lamprid. Al. Sev.
51). The transfugae,
or deserters to the enemy, when taken, were sometimes
deprived of their hands or feet (Liv. 26.12
V. Max. 2.7.11
), but generally were put
to death. In imperial times they were exposed to wild beasts (Val. Max. l.c.
§ § 13, 14; Dig. l.c.
§ 10). (Marquardt,