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ENCTE´SIS

ENCTE´SIS (ἔγκτησις, Doric ἔμπασις, Boeot. ἔππασις, Boeckh, C. G. i. p. 725 b), the right of possessing landed property and houses (ἔγκτησις γῆς καὶ οἰκίας) in a foreign country, which was frequently granted by one Greek state to another (Dem. de Cor. p. 265.91; C. I. G. ii. No. 2352; Xen. Hell. 5.2, 19) or to separate individuals of another state.1 In Boeckh's opinion (P. E. p. 140=Sthh.3 1.177) ἰσοτελεία and probably also προξενία included this right. Meier (de prox. p. 21) dissents from this, and Schubert (de prox. Att. p. 40 ff.) quotes inscriptions from which we learn that ἔγκτησις was granted in addition to προξενία (C. I. A. ii. Nos. 41, 131, 186), whilst in other cases (No. 139) ἔγκτησις alone is conferred. This privilege meant the right of possessing either a house, or a house and land (C. I. A. ii. Nos. 42, 70, 121, etc.--i. No. 59; ii. No. 41, etc.); in C. I. A. ii. No. 380 the right of possessing land to the amount of two talents is granted, and in Nos. 121 and 222 the time is specified ἕως ἂν κατέλθωσιν). The privilege was not hereditary, since in some decrees it is specially stated αὐτῷ καὶ ἐκγόνοις (C. I. A. 2.186, etc.). Ἐγκτήματα were such possessions in a foreign country, and are opposed (by [Dem.] de Halonn. p. 87.42) to κτήματα, possessions in one's own country. (Valcken. ad Hdt. 5.23.) Since, except in special instances, only citizens enjoyed the right of possessing land and houses at Athens, it was not safe for aliens to advance money on such property (Dem. pro Phorm. p. 946.6; Xen. de Vect. 2, 6). In the psephisma which formed the basis of the second confederacy the Athenians gave up their ἐγκτήματα in the territories of the allies, and renounced the right of acquiring such henceforward (Diod. 15.29, 7; C. I. A. ii. No. 17); those who disregarded this arrangement were to be proceeded against by φάσις πρὸς τοὺς συνέδρους τῶν συμμάχων. The term ἐγκτήματα was also applied to the landed property or houses which an Athenian possessed in a different δῆμος from that to which he belonged by birth, and with respect to such property he was called ἐγκεκτημένος: whence we find Demosthenes [p. 1.733]c. Polycl. p. 1208.8) speaking of οἱ δημόται καὶ οἱ ἐγκεκτημένοι. For the right of holding property in a δῆμος to which he did not belong, he (as well as a foreigner who enjoyed the privilege of ἔγκτησις) had to pay such δῆμος a tax, which is mentioned in inscriptions under the name of ἐγκτητικόν. The remission of this tax is mentioned in inscriptions (C. I. A. ii. Nos. 589, 582, 574); it was sometimes accompanied by other privileges, as προεδρία and a limited share in the sacrifices of the deme as in the case of Callidamas (C. I. A. ii. No. 589; Boeckh, i. p. 408 a; O. Müller, de demis Att. p. 20 ff.; Att. Process, ed. Lipsius, p. 671 ff.). It is a special case of ἔγκτησις when and is granted to foreigners for the erection of a sanctuary (see C. I. A. ii. No. 168 sub fin.: δεδόχθαι τῷ δήμῳ, δοῦναι τοῖς ἐμπόροις τῶν Κιτιέων ἔνκτησιν χωρίου ἐν ίδρύσονται τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς Ἀφροδίτης καθάπερ καὶ οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι τὸ τῆς Ἴσιδος ἱερὸν ἵδρυνται).

1 Rangabé, Antiq. hellén. ii. No. 678 (Oropus), No. 696 (Megara, γᾶς καὶ οἰκίας ἐπαρχά), No. 705 (Thespiae, γᾶς καὶ Ϝυκίας ἔμπασις), No. 705b (Orchomenus, γᾶς κὴ Ϝυκίας ἔππασις), No. 739 (Ambrysa), No. 741 (Lamia, γᾶς καὶ οἰκίας ἔγκτησις καὶ ἐπινομία); cf. Boeckh, C. I. Gr., No. 1793 (Arcanania, γᾶς καὶ οἰκίας ἔγκτησις), No. 2556 and 2558 (Crete, γᾶς καὶ οἰκίας ἔνκτησιν), No. 1771 (Thessaly), No. 2056 (Thrace, ἐγγείων ἔγκτησις), etc.

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