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FORMA dim. FORMULA, FORMELLA (τύπος), a pattern, a mould; any contrivance adapted to convey its own shape to some plastic or flexible material, including moulds for making pottery, pastry, cheese, bricks, and coins. Several moulds for use in cookery are among the kitchen utensils found at Pompeii. The moulds for coins were made of a kind of stone, which was indestructible by heat (Plin. Nat. 36.168). The mode of pouring into them the melted metal for casting the coins will be best understood from the woodcut on next page, which represents one side of a mould, engraved by Seroux d'Agincourt. For the moulds used in casting terra-cottas, see ECTYPUS Moulds were likewise employed in making walls of the kind now called pisé, i.e. clay cast in wooden frames, which were built in Africa, in Spain, and about Tarentum (Varr. de R. R. 1.14; Pallad. 1.34; parietes formacei, Plin. Nat. 35.169). The shoemaker's last was also called forma (Hor. Sat. 2.3, 106), formula (Amm. Marc. 31.2.6), and tentipellium [p. 1.873](Festus, s. v.), in Greek καλόπους (Plat. Symp. 191 A). The spouts and channels of

Forma, mould for coins.

aqueducts are called formae, perhaps from their resemblance to some of the moulds included in the above enumeration (Frontin. de Aquaeduct. 75, 126).

[J.Y] [W.W]

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