evidently compounded of ἅρμα,
term, including not only the Latin CURRUS
but other descriptions of carriages for persons; and
which meant a waggon, having
commonly four wheels, and used to carry loads or burthens as well as persons
(Hes. Op. et Dies,
692; Hom. Il.
; Od. 9.241
). The harmamaxa was a carriage for
persons, in its construction very similar to the CARPENTUM
being covered overhead and enclosed with
Xen. Cyrop. 6.4
, § 11; Diod. 11.56
; Charito, 5.2.9), so as to be used at
night as well as by day (Xen. Cyrop. 4.2
§ 15); but it was in general larger, often drawn by four horses or
other suitable quadrupeds, and ornamented in a manner more splendid,
luxurious, and expensive, and in the Oriental style (Diod. 17.35
; Aristoph. Ach.
). It occupied among the Persians (Max. Tyr. 34) the same place
which the carpentum did among the Romans, being used, especially upon state
occasions, for the conveyance of women and children, of eunuchs, and of the
sons of the king with their tutors (Hdt. 7.83
; Xen. Cyrop.
, § 8; 4.3.1; Q. Curt.
). Also, as persons might lie in it at length, and it was made
as commodious as possible, it was used by the kings of Persia, and by men of
high rank in travelling by night, or in any other circumstances when they
wished to consult their ease and their pleasure (Hdt.
; Xen. Cyrop. 3.1
The body of Alexander the Great was transported from Babylon to Alexandria in
a magnificent harmamaxa, the construction of which occupied two years, and
the description of which, with its paintings and ornaments in gold, silver,
and ivory, employed the pen of more than one historian (Diod. 18.26
e; Aelian, Ael. VH 12.64
The harmamaxa was occasionally used by the ladies of Greece. A priestess of
Diana is represented as riding in one which is drawn by two white heifers
3.4), and the coins of Ephesus show that this
carriage, probably containing also symbols of the attributes and worship of
Diana, added to the splendour of the religious processions in that city.