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NAVA´LIA were dry docks where ships were built, or drawn up (subductae) to be repaired or laid up till they were again needed. Those at Rome were opposite the Prata Quinctia in the upper bend of the Tiber (Livo fii. 26, 8.15; Burn, Rome and Campagna, p. 51), and so described as above the Aventine (Plut. Cat. Mi. 39). In Liv. 45.42 we are told of navalia in the Campus Martius, where the ships taken from Perseus were laid up. The use of these Roman navalia for large ships was generally lessened under the Empire when the mouth of the Tiber was much more silted up, and Puteoli became the harbour where vessels trading to Rome discharged their cargo and were docked: others, however, still ran up to Rome after they had been lightened by discharging part of their cargo at Ostia, to be taken up in smaller boats (naves codicariae). (Strabo v. p.231; Sen. de brev. Vit. 13; cf. Marquardt, Privatleben, p. 408.) The docks (νεώσοικοι or νεώρια: see below) at Piraeus were constructed by Pericles (Paus. 1.29, 16) at a cost of 1000 talents, according to Isocrates (Areopag. § 66), and, having been destroyed after the Peloponnesian War, were restored in the administration of Lycurgus. For their management, see EPIMELETAE (6), Vol. I. p. 749 b. As to the distinction between νεώσοικοι and νεώρια, Arnold rightly points out in his note on Thuc. 7.25 that νεώρια are strictly the dockyards, νεώσοικοι the large covered sheds for the reception of ships laid up, on the roofs of which the Syracusans stand (cf. Demosth. de Symm. p. 184.26). But there can be no doubt that in Thuc. 1.108, when Tolmides burns τὸ νεώριον at Gytheum, we are to understand especially the νεώσοικοι, and conversely Isocrates (l.c.) uses νεώσοικοι for dockyard, sheds and all.

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