), any long
cylindrical pieces of wood, such as trunks of trees (Hdt. 3.97
; Plin. Nat. 12.17
truncheons (Plin. Nat. 7.200
). Hence it
had two special meanings: (1) poles used to carry burdens, being supported
on the shoulders of the carriers with the burden hanging below by ropes. The
carriers were called phalangarii,
and also hexaphori, tetraphori,
&c., according to
their number (C. I. L.
6.1785; Non. p. 163, 26; Vitr. 10.8
). (2) The word also signified rollers
placed under ships to move them on dry land,
so as to draw them up on shore (subducere
down into the water (deducere
). They are [p. 2.380]
(cf. δουράτεοι κύλινδροι,
). The rollers were
aided by levers (for which the oars were sometimes used) and ropes, often
doubled so that the sailors pressed with their breasts, as in ordinary
towing (Orph. Arg.
239-273). They were employed in the same
manner to move military engines (Caes. Civ.