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TETRARCHA or TETRARCHES (τετράρχης). This word was originally used, according to its etymological meaning, to signify the governor of the fourth part of a country (τετραρχία or τετραδαρχία). We have an example in the ancient division of Thessaly into four tetrarchies, which was revived by Philip (Harpocrat. s. v. Τετραρχία: Strabo ix. p.430; Demosth. Phil. iii. p. 117.26; Eur. Alc. 1154; Thirlwall's Greece, vi. pp. 13, 14; Gilbert, Staatsalt. 2.13). [TAGUS] Each of the three Gallic tribes which settled in Galatia was divided into four tetrarchies, each ruled by a tetrarch. [PAGUS] (Strabo, xii. pp. 566, 567; Plin. Nat. 5.42.) This arrangement subsisted till the later times of the Roman republic (Appian, App. Mith. 46; Syr. 50; Bell. Civ. 4.88), but at last the twelve tetrarchs of Gallograecia were reduced to one, namely Deiotarus (Liv. Epit. xciv.; Cic. pro Deiot. 15; Hirtius, de Bell. Alex. 67). Some of the tribes of Syria were ruled by tetrarchs, and several of the princes of the house of Herod ruled in Palestine with this title [p. 2.809](Plin. H. N.. 5.16, 19;--J. AJ 14.13.1, 17.8.1, 11.4.18, 17.11.1, 11.2,. § 2; Vit. 11; Marquardt, Staatsverw. 1.401).

In the later period of the Republic and under the Empire, the Romans seem to have used the title (as also. those of ethnarch and phylarch) to designate those tributary princes who were not of sufficient importance to be called kings. (Compare Lucan 7.227; Sallust, Catil. 20; Cic. pro Mil. 28, 76, in Vatin. 12, 29; Hor. Sat. 1.3, 12; Vell. Paterc. 2.51; Tac. Ann. 15.25.


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